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10 January 2016

Bedtime Mobile Phone Use and Sleep in Adults

"Findings suggest that bedtime mobile phone use is negatively related to sleep outcomes in adults, too. It warrants continued scholarly attention as the functionalities of mobile phones evolve rapidly and exponentially."

Bedtime mobile phone use and sleep in adults
Social Science & Medicine
Volume 148, January 2016, Pages 93–101

School for Mass Communication Research, KU Leuven, Parkstraat 45, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Received 24 March 2015, Revised 10 November 2015, Accepted 24 November 2015, Available online 2 December 2015

Abstract

Background
The few studies that have investigated the relationship between mobile phone use and sleep have mainly been conducted among children and adolescents. In adults, very little is known about mobile phone usage in bed our after lights out. This cross-sectional study set out to examine the association between bedtime mobile phone use and sleep among adults.

Methods
A sample of 844 Flemish adults (18–94 years old) participated in a survey about electronic media use and sleep habits. Self-reported sleep quality, daytime fatigue and insomnia were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS), respectively. Data were analyzed using hierarchical and multinomial regression analyses.

Results
Half of the respondents owned a smartphone, and six out of ten took their mobile phone with them to the bedroom. Sending/receiving text messages and/or phone calls after lights out significantly predicted respondents' scores on the PSQI, particularly longer sleep latency, worse sleep efficiency, more sleep disturbance and more daytime dysfunction. Bedtime mobile phone use predicted respondents' later self-reported rise time, higher insomnia score and increased fatigue. Age significantly moderated the relationship between bedtime mobile phone use and fatigue, rise time, and sleep duration. An increase in bedtime mobile phone use was associated with more fatigue and later rise times among younger respondents (≤ 41.5 years old and ≤ 40.8 years old respectively); but it was related to an earlier rise time and shorter sleep duration among older respondents (≥ 60.15 years old and ≥ 66.4 years old respectively).

Conclusion
Findings suggest that bedtime mobile phone use is negatively related to sleep outcomes in adults, too. It warrants continued scholarly attention as the functionalities of mobile phones evolve rapidly and exponentially.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953615302458

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