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EMF Studies

30 July 2016

Controversies on Electromagnetic in Neurobiology of Organisms - 2

We are posting here recent studies on electromagnetic fields published in the September 2016 issue of the Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy.  Clicking on titles of the studies will take you to the abstract.

Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Volume 75, Part B, Pages 41-140 (September 2016)

See for all studies:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08910618/75/supp/PB

Controversies on Electromagnetic in Neurobiology of Organisms
Edited by Suleyman Kaplan, PhD and Devra Davis, PhD MPH

The role of electromagnetic fields in neurological disorders

Murat Terzia, , ,
Berra Ozberka,
Omur Gulsum Denizb,
Suleyman Kaplanb

• Description of electromagnetic fields and evaluation of its possible effects on biological systems.
• The association between the electromagnetic field and neurodegenerative diseases.
• Experimental and clinical studies on the electromagnetic field.


In the modern world, people are exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as part of their daily lives; the important question is “What is the effect of EMFs on human health?” Most previous studies are epidemiological, and we still do not have concrete evidence of EMF pathophysiology. Several factors may lead to chemical, morphological, and electrical alterations in the nervous system in a direct or indirect way. It is reported that non-ionizing EMFs have effects on animals and cells. The changes they bring about in organic systems may cause oxidative stress, which is essential for the neurophysiological process; it is associated with increased oxidization in species, or a reduction in antioxidant defense systems. Severe oxidative stress can cause imbalances in reactive oxygen species, which may trigger neurodegeneration. This review aims to detail these changes. Special attention is paid to the current data regarding EMFs’ effects on neurological disease and associated symptoms, such as headache, sleep disturbances, and fatigue.

The link between radiofrequencies emitted from wireless technologies and oxidative stress

Suleyman Dasdaga, , ,
Mehmet Zulkuf Akdagb


Wireless communication such as cellular telephones and other types of handheld phones working with frequencies of 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2100 MHz, 2450 MHz have been increasing rapidly. Therefore, public opinion concern about the potential human health hazards of short and long-term effect of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Oxidative stress is a biochemical condition, which is defined by the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the anti-oxidative defense. In this review, we evaluated available in vitro and in vivo studies carried out on the relation between RF emitted from mobile phones and oxidative stress. The results of the studies we reviewed here indicated that mobile phones and similar equipment or radars can be thought as a factor, which cause oxidative stress. Even some of them claimed that oxidative stress originated from radiofrequencies can be resulted with DNA damage. For this reason one of the points to think on is relation between mobile phones and oxidative stress. However, more performance is necessary especially on human exposure studies.

The 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G-mobile phone and the DNA oxidative damage in brain

Duygu Sahina,
Elcin Ozgurb, , ,
Goknur Gulerb,
Arın Tomrukb,
Ilhan Unluc,
Aylin Sepici-Dinçeld,
Nesrin Seyhanb

• The 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation and oxidative DNA damage in brain.
• The effects of duration and tissue type to DNA damage.


We aimed to evaluate the effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted by a generator, simulating a 3G-mobile phone on the brain of rats during 10 and 40 days of exposure. The female rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I; exposed to 3G modulated 2100 MHz RFR signal for 6 h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 2 weeks, group II; control 10 days, were kept in an inactive exposure set-up for 6 h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 2 weeks, group III; exposed to 3G modulated 2100 MHz RFR signal for 6 h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 8 weeks and group IV; control 40 days, were kept in an inactive exposure set-up for 6 h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 8 weeks. After the genomic DNA content of brain was extracted, oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine, pg/mL) and malondialdehyde (MDA, nmoL/g tissue) levels were determined. Our main finding was the increased oxidative DNA damage to brain after 10 days of exposure with the decreased oxidative DNA damage following 40 days of exposure compared to their control groups. Besides decreased lipid peroxidation end product, MDA, was observed after 40 days of exposure. The measured decreased quantities of damage during the 40 days of exposure could be the means of adapted and increased DNA repair mechanisms.

Morphological and antioxidant impairments in the spinal cord of male offspring rats following exposure to a continuous 900 MHz electromagnetic field during early and mid-adolescence

Ayşe İkincia,
Tolga Mercantepeb,
Deniz Unalc,
Hüseyin Serkan Erold,
Arzu Şahine,
Ali Aslane,
Orhan Başf,
Havva Erdemg,
Osman Fikret Sönmezh,
Haydar Kayai,
Ersan Odacıa,

• Spinal cords of male rats were investigated following exposure to 900 MHz EMF.
• Tissue malondialdehyde and glutathione levels increased in the EMF group.
• Light microscopy revealed atrophy in the spinal cord in the EMF group.
• TEM revealed invagination into the axon in the EMF group.
• TEM revealed loss of myelin sheath integrity in the EMF group.


The effects of devices emitting electromagnetic field (EMF) on human health have become the subject of intense research among scientists due to the rapid increase in their use. Children and adolescents are particularly attracted to the use of devices emitting EMF, such as mobile phones. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate changes in the spinal cords of male rat pups exposed to the effect of 900 MHz EMF. The study began with 24 Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 3 weeks. Three groups containing equal numbers of rats were established—control group (CG), sham group (SG) and EMF group (EMFG). EMFG rats were placed inside an EMF cage every day between postnatal days (PD) 21 and 46 and exposed to the effect of 900 MHz EMF for 1 h. SG rats were kept in the EMF cage for 1 h without being exposed to the effect of EMF. At the end of the study, the spinal cords in the upper thoracic region of all rats were removed. Tissues were collected for biochemistry, light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination. Biochemistry results revealed significantly increased malondialdehyde and glutathione levels in EMFG compared to CG and SG, while SG and EMFG catalase and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly higher than those in CG. In EMFG, LM revealed atrophy in the spinal cord, vacuolization, myelin thickening and irregularities in the perikarya. TEM revealed marked loss of myelin sheath integrity and invagination into the axon and broad vacuoles in axoplasm. The study results show that biochemical alterations and pathological changes may occur in the spinal cords of male rats following exposure to 900 MHz EMF for 1 h a day on PD 21–46.

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