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EMF Studies

12 February 2017

14 New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (7 February 2017)

Fourteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health (sent via Email on 25 January 2017 to the CHE-EMF working group by Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley). saferemr.com.

To keep this post short, we are including abstracts and excerpts for only a few of the studies.

Fourteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, Feb 7, 2017

ELF exposure from mobile and cordless phones for the epidemiological MOBI-Kids study


Also see: http://www.saferemr.com/2013/05/mobi-kids-childhood-brain-tumor-risk.html


Corrigendum to "Inferring the 1985-2014 impact of mobile phone use on selected brain cancer subtypes using Bayesian structural time series and synthetic controls"


Also see: Changing Mix of Brain Tumors in U.K. http://microwavenews.com/short-takes-archive/changing-mix-uk-bts


Effects of RF-EMF Exposure from GSM Mobile Phones on Proliferation Rate of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells: An In-vitro Study



The Fundamental Reasons Why Laptop Computers should not be Used on Your Lap

S A R Mortazavi, S Taeb, S M J Mortazavi, S Zarei, M Haghani, P Habibzadeh, M B Shojaei-fard. The Fundamental Reasons Why Laptop Computers should not be Used on Your Lap. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2016 Dec 1;6(4):279-284. eCollection 2016.


As a tendency to use new technologies, gadgets such as laptop computers are becoming more popular among students, teachers, businessmen and office workers. Today laptops are a great tool for education and learning, work and personal multimedia. Millions of men, especially those in the reproductive age, are frequently using their laptop computers on the lap (thigh). Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Our own studies as well as the studies performed by other researchers indicate that using laptop computers on the lap adversely affects the male reproductive health. When it is placed on the lap, not only the heat from a laptop computer can warm men’s scrotums, the electromagnetic fields generated by laptop’s internal electronic circuits as well as the Wi-Fi Radiofrequency radiation hazards (in a Wi-Fi connected laptop) may decrease sperm quality. Furthermore, due to poor working posture, laptops should not be used on the lap for long hours.



Characterizing and Mapping of Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (20-3,000 Mhz) in Chengdu, China



The effects of human height and mass on the calculated induced electric fields at 50 Hz for comparison with the EMF Directive 2013/35/EU



Risk agents related to work and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: An occupational medicine focus



Rapid and Delayed Effects of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Neuropathic Pain: Electrophysiological, Molecular, and Behavioral Evidence Supporting Long-Term Depression



Evaluation of the potential of mobile phone specific electromagnetic fields (UMTS) to produce micronuclei in human glioblastoma cell lines

Halh Al-Serori, Michael Kundi, Franziska Ferk, Miroslav Mišík,Armen Nersesyan, Manuel Murbach, Tamara T. Lah, Siegfried Knasmüller. Evaluation of the potential of mobile phone specific electromagnetic fields (UMTS) to produce micronuclei in human glioblastoma cell lines. Toxicology in Vitro. 40:264-271. April 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2017.01.012


• Aim was to find out if mobile phone specific radiation causes chromosomal damage.
• The effect of the UMTS signal was tested in two human glioblastoma cell lines.
• No induction of micronuclei and several other nuclear anomalies were found.
• Induction of programmed cell death was observed in a p53 mutated cell line (U251).
• In p53 proficient cells (U87) the apoptosis rate was not increased.


Some epidemiological studies indicate that mobile phones cause glioblastomas in humans. Since it is known that genomic instability plays a key role in the etiology of cancer, we investigated the effects of the universal mobile telecommunications system radiofrequency (UMTS-RF) signal, which is used in “smart” phones, on micronucleus (MN) formation and other anomalies such as nuclear buds (NBUDs) and nucleoplasmatic bridges (NPBs). MN are formed by structural and numerical aberrations, NBs reflect gene amplification and NPBs are formed from dicentric chromosomes. The experiments were conducted with human glioblastoma cell lines, which differ in regard to their p53 status, namely U87 (wild-type) and U251 (mutated). The cells were cultivated for 16 h in presence and absence of fetal calf serum and exposed to different SAR doses (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 W/kg), which reflect the exposure of humans, in presence and absence of mitomycin C as former studies indicate that RF may cause synergistic effects in combination with this drug. We found no evidence for induction of MN and other anomalies. However, with the highest dose, induction of apoptosis was observed in U251 cells on the basis of the morphological features of the cells. Our findings indicate that the UMTS-RF signal does not cause chromosomal damage in glioblastoma cells; the mechanisms which lead to induction of programmed cell death will be investigated in further studies.


1950 MHz UMTS

In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that exposure of cultured human glioblastoma cells to mobile phone specific RF does not cause MN formation. These findings can be taken as an indication that mechanisms other than chromosomal damage lead to induction of glioblastomas, which was observed in a number of epidemiological studies (for review see IARC (2013) Volume 102). However, as described above we found clear evidence for induction of apoptosis in one of the cell lines with defective p53. The observation of induction of programmed cell death in a glioma derived cell line indicates that the UMTS signal causes physiological effects (such as primary DNA damage or other processes), which finally leads to the elimination of the cells. Future investigations will be conducted to understand the biological consequences and the molecular mechanisms which cause this phenomenon.


Numerical Exposure Assessment Method for Low Frequency Range and Application to Wireless Power Transfer

Open access: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0166720


Quantitative changes in testicular structure and function in rat exposed to mobile phone radiation

Çetkin M, Kızılkan N, Demirel C, Bozdağ Z, Erkılıç S, Erbağcı H. Quantitative changes in testicular structure and function in rat exposed to mobile phone radiation. Andrologia. 2017 Jan 26. doi: 10.1111/and.12761. [Epub ahead of print]


The possible effects of the electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by mobile phones on reproductive functions have been discussed in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones on the rat testis morphology and histopathology using stereological techniques. We also investigated cortisol, testosterone, FSH and LH levels. A total of thirty-two (n = 32) male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups as control (C, n = 8), sham (Sh, n = 8), mobile phone speech (Sp, n = 8) and mobile phone standby (ST by). Morphometric measurements were made with the help of a computer-assisted stereological analysis system. The testis weight and volume were significantly lower in the EMF exposed groups. The mean volume fraction of interstitial tissue was higher, but the volume fraction of tubular tissue was lower in the EMF-exposed groups. The mean tubular and germinal tissue volume, seminiferous tubule diameter and germinal epithelium height were also lower in EMF exposed groups. The cortisol levels in the EMF-exposed groups were significantly higher. In conclusion, the EMF created by mobile phones caused morphologic and histological changes by the affecting germinal epithelium tissue negatively.



In order to generate EMF, mobile phones using GSM mobile phone systems were employed. The highest SAR (specific absorption rate) of the mobile phones was 0.96 W/kg and each of these phones had a 890-915 MHz carrier frequency band, 217 Hz modulation frequency, 250 mW maximum average power and 2 W maximum peak power (Dasdag et al., 1999).

Speech mode was obtained by keeping the mobile phone in the experiment box on speech mode for 2 hr/day. For the standby mode, the mobile phone was put on standby for 12 hr/day.

It was seen at the end of the study that exposure to mobile phones caused degeneration in germinal epithelium tissue and as a result, such parameters as testis volume, tubular tissue volume fraction and volume, germinal epithelium volume, STD, GEH and Johnsen biopsy score were affected adversely. Moreover, exposure to mobile phones was found to increase cortisol levels as well.

In conclusion, it has been found in our study that EMF generated by mobile phones causes degeneration in the germinal epithelium. As a result of this degeneration, significant decreases were observed in the testis volumes, tubular tissue volumes, STD and GEH of the experimental groups. While EMF increased serum cortisol levels in the experimental group, it caused no change in gonadal hormones. All these findings are considered to be useful for studies examining the effects of EMF on reproductive functions.

Also see: http://www.saferemr.com/2015/09/effect-of-mobile-phones-on-sperm.html


GSM-like radiofrequency exposure induces apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway in infant rabbits

Meral O, Ozgur E, Kismali G, Guler G, Alpay M, Sel T, Seyhan N. GSM-like radiofrequency exposure induces apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway in infant rabbits. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2016;117(11):672-676. doi: 10.4149/BLL_2016_129.


BACKGROUND: There have been several Radio Frequency (RF) field researches on various populations and groups of different ages in recent years. However, the most important group for research has been declared as the pregnant women and their babies.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyse the effect on apoptotic factors of RF fields on newborn rabbit liver tissues.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytochrome c and AIF (Apoptosis Inducing Factor) levels were measured by western blot and caspase 1, 3 and 9 activities were measured by colorimetric method.

RESULTS: Cytochrome c and AIF levels were not altered, but all caspase activities were increased in female infant rabbits that exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF signals when they reached 1 month of age and caspase 1 and caspase 3 levels were decreased in male infant rabbits that exposed to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF signals between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period. Results showed that 1800 MHz GSM-like RF exposure might lead to apoptosis in infant rabbit's liver tissues.

CONCLUSION: According to the results, we suggest that postnatal RF exposure causes caspase dependent apoptosis in female infant rabbits liver tissues (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 27).



GSM 900 MHz Microwave Radiation-Induced Alterations of Insulin Level and Histopathological Changes of Liver and Pancreas in Rat

Mortazavi SMJ, Owji SM, Shojaie-fard MB, Ghader-Panah M, Mortazavi SAR, Tavakoli-Golpayegani A, Haghani M, Taeb S, Shokrpour N, Koohi O. GSM 900 MHz Microwave Radiation-Induced Alterations of Insulin Level and Histopathological Changes of Liver and Pancreas in Rat. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2016 Dec 1;6(4):235-242. eCollection 2016.


Background: The rapidly increasing use of mobile phones has led to public concerns about possible health effects of these popular communication devices. This study is an attempt to investigate the effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation produced by GSM mobile phones on the insulin release in rats.

Methods: Forty two female adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group1 were exposed to RF radiation 6 hours per day for 7 days. Group 2 received sham exposure (6 hours per day for 7 days). Groups 3 and 4 received RF radiation 3 hours per day for 7 days and sham exposure (3 hours per day), respectively. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of RF was 2.0 W/kg.

Results: Our results showed that RF radiations emitted from mobile phone could not alter insulin release in rats. However, mild to severe inflammatory changes in the portal spaces of the liver of rats as well as damage in the cells of islet of Langerhans were observed. These changes were linked with the duration of the exposures.

Conclusion: RF exposure can induce inflammatory changes in the liver as well causing damage in the cells of islet of Langerhans.



The effect of the non ionizing radiation on exposed, laboratory cultivated upland cotton plants

Aikaterina L. Stefi, Lukas H. Margaritis, Nikolaos S. Christodoulakis.The effect of the non ionizing radiation on exposed, laboratory cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. Volume 226:55-64. January 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2016.11.009.


• Upland cotton plants grow under long term microwave radiation.
• They suffer significant biomass reduction of exposed plants.
• Chloroplast structure is severely affected.
• Photosynthetic pigment content reduces.
• Roots do respond to radiation stress.


A series of experiments was carried out to investigate possible structural or biochemical alterations in Gossypium hirsutum plants after a long term (21 days) exposure to non ionizing radiation (1882 MHz) emitted from the base unit of a cordless DECT system. Exposed plants, compared to the negative (matched) controls, seem to be seriously affected. Notably lower biomass production for the above ground part and the root was recorded. Reduction of the photosynthetic pigments and severe damage of the chloroplast structure were also observed. It seems that non ionizing radiation can be noxious for plant life functions.


In the middle of one of the two cages, the base unit of a DECT telephone apparatus (General, Model 123) was appropriately positioned. The DECT base was in a 24 h a day, 7 days a week, pulsed transmission mode, at 1882 MHz, as described elsewhere (Margaritis et al., 2014)....

Supplementary, low precision measurements were made in the control cage; with a broadband field meter (TES-92, 50 MHz–3.5 GHz, Electromagnetic radiation detector – TES Electrical Electronic Corp. Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.) at the value of 490.1 mV/m. In the nearby cage (exposed), radiation reached the value of 27.46 V/m (27.460 mV/m, at 1882 MHz) (55 fold higher).


The effect of the non-ionizing radiation at the microwave band, on the Gossypium hirsutum young plants, after a long term exposure, can be considered as significant. The disastrous effect on chloroplast structure, the reduction of the photosynthetic pigments and the suppression of the photosynthetic potential, are the main causes for the significant reduction of the primary productivity. Moreover, a serious effect on the underground part of the plant was recorded but this cannot be evaluated yet.


Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

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