Raise awareness of environmental health issues in order to better protect our children and future generations.

11 May 2017

Thirteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (3 May 2017)

Thirteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 3 May 2017

For some of these studies, we are posting only the titles of the studies, the authors, and links to the abstracts.


Preterm birth among women living within 600 meters of high voltage overhead Power Lines: a case-control study

Sadeghi T, Ahmadi A, Javadian M, Gholamian SA, Delavar MA, Esmailzadeh S, Ahmadi B, Hadighi MSH. Preterm birth among women living within 600 meters of high voltage overhead Power Lines: a case-control study. Rom J Intern Med. 2017 Apr 18. [Epub ahead of print]


AIM: The issue of preterm birth due to exposure to magnetic fields from power lines is unclear. Exposure to electromagnetic field in uterus has been hypothesized as possible preterm birth. The aim of the present study was to determine whether living closer to high voltage power lines increased the risk of preterm labor.

METHODS: In a nested case-control study, 135 cases of singleton live spontaneous preterm birth in Rohani hospital, Babol, Iran, during the period between 2013 and 2014 were studied. The 150 control subjects were singleton term live birth in the same year of birth and city of residence using randomized-digit dialing. The shortest distance to any of the high voltage power lines to the maternal residence during pregnancy was measured using ArcGIS software for every case and control. To test the association between the preterm births and the residential proximity to power lines, stepwise multiple logistic regression was used.

RESULTS: There were 28 households, 20 cases (14.8%) and 8 controls (5.3%) were situated within 600 meters of a high voltage power lines. The adjusted OR for spontaneous preterm birth and birth defect in women who were living in less than 600 meters from high voltage power lines was higher compared to those living in farther distance (OR=3.28, CI: 1.37 to 7.85) and (OR=5.05, CI: 1.52 to 16.78), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, installing overhead power lines and stations within 600 meters or making overhead underground would be useful in the prevention of the both preterm birth and birth defect.



Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation

Carlberg M, Hardell L. Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:9218486. doi: 10.1155/2017/9218486. Epub 2017 Mar 16.


Objective. Bradford Hill's viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation were used on glioma risk and use of mobile or cordless phones. Methods. All nine viewpoints were evaluated based on epidemiology and laboratory studies. Results. Strength: meta-analysis of case-control studies gave odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-2.76 with highest cumulative exposure. Consistency: the risk increased with latency, meta-analysis gave in the 10+ years' latency group OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.20-2.19. Specificity: increased risk for glioma was in the temporal lobe. Using meningioma cases as comparison group still increased the risk. Temporality: highest risk was in the 20+ years' latency group, OR = 2.01, 95% CI =1.41-2.88, for wireless phones. Biological gradient: cumulative use of wireless phones increased the risk. Plausibility: animal studies showed an increased incidence of glioma and malignant schwannoma in rats exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. There is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from RF radiation. Coherence: there is a change in the natural history of glioma and increasing incidence. Experiment: antioxidants reduced ROS production from RF radiation. Analogy: there is an increased risk in subjects exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Conclusion. RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen causing glioma.



Asociación entre las radiaciones de teléfonos móviles y el riesgo tumoral en personas adultas

Bielsa-Fernández P, Rodríguez-Martín B. Asociación entre las radiaciones de teléfonos móviles y el riesgo tumoral en personas adultas. Gaceta Sanitaria, Available online 13 April 2017. (Review paper written in Spanish.)


Objective To synthesize and analyse systematic reviews, case-control studies, cohort studies and meta-analysis that investigate the association between exposure to radiofrequency from mobile phones and the appearance of tumours in adults.

Methods A systematic search was conducted in Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Medline and Cinahl of articles published in English and Spanish between January 2005 and February 2016 that analyse the risk of tumour associated with exposure to radiofrequency from mobile phones in adults. The recommendations of the PRISMA Declaration were followed, and the quality of the articles was analysed with the AMSTAR tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.

Results 1034 studies were found, fourteen of which were included. Most studies agree that it is not possible to determine a relationship in the short term, although long-term (over 10 years) radiofrequency emitted by mobile phones can cause tumour effects, with an increased risk by ipsilateral exposure and latency.

Conclusions Although radiofrequency from mobile phones has tumour effects on humans, the available scientific evidence is not robust. More rigorous follow-up studies with larger sample sizes and broader periods are necessary to learn more about the long-term effects.



Acute effects of mobile phone radiation on brain function

Zhang J, Sumich A, Wang GY. Acute effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phone on brain function. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017 Apr 20. doi: 10.1002/bem.22052. [Epub ahead of print]


Due to its attributes, characteristics, and technological resources, the mobile phone (MP) has become one of the most commonly used communication devices. Historically, ample evidence has ruled out the substantial short-term impact of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) emitted by MP on human cognitive performance. However, more recent evidence suggests potential harmful effects associated with MP EMF exposure. The aim of this review is to readdress the question of whether the effect of MP EMF exposure on brain function should be reopened. We strengthen our argument focusing on recent neuroimaging and electroencephalography studies, in order to present a more specific analysis of effects of MP EMF exposure on neurocognitive function. Several studies indicate an increase in cortical excitability and/or efficiency with EMF exposure, which appears to be more prominent in fronto-temporal regions and has been associated with faster reaction time. Cortical excitability might also underpin disruption to sleep. However, several inconsistent findings exist, and conclusions regarding adverse effects of EMF exposure are currently limited. It also should be noted that the crucial scientific question of the effect of longer-term MP EMF exposure on brain function remains unanswered and essentially unaddressed.



Cell phone use may increase the risk of developing parotid gland tumors

Brignardello-Petersen R. Cell phone use may increase the risk of developing parotid gland tumors. J Am Dent Assoc. 2017 May;148(5):e61. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2017.02.045.

No Abstract

Also see: de Siqueira EC, de Souza FT, Gomez RS, Gomes CC, de Souza RP. Does cell phone use increase the chances of parotid gland tumor development? A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print December 9, 2016]. J Oral Pathol Med. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12531.



Modeled & Perceived Exposure to RF EMF From Mobile-Phone Base Stations & Development of Symptoms Over Time in General Population Cohort

Martens AL, Slottje P, Timmermans DR, Kromhout H, Reedijk M, Vermeulen RC, Smid T. Modeled and Perceived Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields From Mobile-Phone Base Stations and the Development of Symptoms Over Time in a General Population Cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 7:1-10. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx041.



Radiofrequency exposure levels in Amsterdam schools

van Wel L, Vermeulen R, van Eijsden M, Vrijkotte T, Kromhout H, Huss A. Radiofrequency exposure levels in Amsterdam schools. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017 Apr 25. doi: 10.1002/bem.22053.

No Abstract


This letter to the editor reports the results of RF exposure levels in 102 primary schools in Amsterdam. GSM base stations (900 + 1800 MHz downlink) provided the largest contribution to the total average RF power density (38.0%), followed by DECT cordless phones (27.3%) and GSM mobile devices (11.1%), Although WiFi contributed only 4.5% of the total average power density, the assessments were conducted after school so it was unlikely that any wireless laptops or tablets were being used at the time.


High RF radiation at Stockholm Old Town: An exposimeter study

Hardell L, Carlberg M, Koppel T, Hedendahl L. High radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Old Town: An exposimeter study including the Royal Castle, Supreme Court, three major squares and the Swedish Parliament. Mol Clin Oncol. 2017 Apr;6(4):462-476. doi: 10.3892/mco.2017.1180. Epub 2017 Mar 3.


Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO in 2011. The exposure pattern is changing due to the rapid development of technology. Outdoor RF radiation level was measured during five tours in Stockholm Old Town in April, 2016 using the EME Spy 200 exposimeter with 20 predefined frequencies. The results were based on 10,437 samples in total. The mean level of the total RF radiation was 4,293 µW/m2 (0.4293 µW/cm2). The highest mean levels were obtained for global system for mobile communications (GSM) + universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) 900 downlink and long-term evolution (LTE) 2600 downlink (1,558 and 1,265 µW/m2, respectively). The town squares displayed highest total mean levels, with the example of Järntorget square with 24,277 µW/m2 (min 257, max 173,302 µW/m2). These results were in large contrast to areas with lowest total exposure, such as the Supreme Court, with a mean level of 404 µW/m2 (min 20.4, max 4,088 µW/m2). In addition, measurements in the streets surrounding the Royal Castle were lower than the total for the Old Town, with a mean of 756 µW/m2 (min 0.3, max 50,967 µW/m2). The BioInitiative 2012 Report defined the scientific benchmark for possible health risks as 30-60 µW/m2. Our results of outdoor RF radiation exposure at Stockholm Old Town are significantly above that level. The mean exposure level at Järntorget square was 405-fold higher than 60 µW/m2. Our results were below the reference level on 10,000,000 µW/m2 established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), which, however, are less credible, as they do not take non-thermal effects into consideration and are not based on sound scientific evaluation. Our highest measured mean level at Järntorget was 0.24% of the ICNIRP level. A number of studies have found adverse, non-thermal (no measurable temperature increase) health effects far below the ICNIRP guidelines.


Effect of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phone RF Radiation on Estrogen Receptor Methylation Status in Colon Cells

Mokarram P, Sheikhi M, Mortazavi SMJ, Saeb S, Shokrpour N. Effect of Exposure to 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Estrogen Receptor Methylation Status in Colon Cells of Male Sprague Dawley Rats. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2017 Mar 1;7(1):79-86. eCollection 2017.

Open Access Paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5401136/


Proteomic analysis of continuous 900-MHz RF EMF exposure in testicular tissue: a rat model of human cell phone exposure

Sepehrimanesh M, Kazemipour N, Saeb M, Nazifi S, Davis DL.Proteomic analysis of continuous 900-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in testicular tissue: a rat model of human cell phone exposure. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Apr 10. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-8882-z.



Exposure to mobile phone (900-1800 MHz) during pregnancy: tissue oxidative stress after childbirth

Bahreyni Toossi MH, Sadeghnia HR, Mohammad Mahdizadeh Feyzabadi M, Hosseini M, Hedayati M, Mosallanejad R, Beheshti F, Alizadeh Rahvar Z.
Exposure to mobile phone (900-1800 MHz) during pregnancy: tissue oxidative stress after childbirth. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 Apr 23:1-6. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1315657. [Epub ahead of print]


BACKGROUND: The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone (900-1800 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation on redox status in the heart, liver, kidney, cerebellum, and hippocampus of dams and the offspring mice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant Balb/C were divided into two groups including the control and the experimental group. The experimental group was exposed to mobile phone (900-1800 MHz), during pregnancy (2 h/d for 20 d). The dams and the offspring of both groups were sacrificed and tissues of interest were harvested immediately after delivery. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, total thiol groups (TTG) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in the tissues.

RESULTS: In the experimental groups, MDA levels were significantly increased, while TTG, SOD, and CAT were significantly decreased in the total tissues of dams and their offspring.

CONCLUSION: Exposure to mobile phone (900-1800 MHz) during pregnancy induced oxidative stress in tissues of dams and their offspring.



Postnatal development & behavior effects of in-utero exposure of rats to RF emitted from WiFi devices

Othman H, Ammari M, Rtibi K, Bensaid N, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H. Postnatal development and behavior effects of in-utero exposure of rats to radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional WiFi devices.Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Apr 22;52:239-247. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2017.04.016.


• Effects of gestational exposure to 2.45 GHz WiFi signal for 2 h/day along gestation period on the offspring were studied.
• Offspring showed neurodevelopment impairments but no behavior alteration at adult age.
• Cerebral oxidative stress equilibrium as well as cholinesterase activity in brain and serum were altered.


The present work investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to radiofrequency waves of conventional WiFi devices on postnatal development and behavior of rat offspring. Ten Wistar albino pregnant rats were randomly assigned to two groups (n=5). The experimental group was exposed to a 2.45GHz WiFi signal for 2h a day throughout gestation period. Control females were subjected to the same conditions as treated group without applying WiFi radiations. After delivery, the offspring was tested for physical and neurodevelopment during its 17 postnatal days (PND), then for anxiety (PND 28) and motricity (PND 40-43), as well as for cerebral oxidative stress response and cholinesterase activity in brain and serum (PND 28 and 43). Our main results showed that the in-utero WiFi exposure impaired offspring neurodevelopment during the first seventeen postnatal days without altering emotional and motor behavior at adult age. Besides, prenatal WiFi exposure induced cerebral oxidative stress imbalance (increase in malondialdehyde level (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels and decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities) at 28 but not 43days old, also the exposure affected acethylcolinesterase activity at both cerebral and seric levels. Thus, the current study revealed that maternal exposure to WiFi radiofrequencies led to various adverse neurological effects in the offspring by affecting neurodevelopment, cerebral stress equilibrium and cholinesterase activity.



Effect of long-term exposure of mice to 900 MHz GSM radiation on cutaneous candidiasis

Bayat M, Hemati S, Soleimani-Estyar R, Shahin-Jafari A. Effect of long-term exposure of mice to 900 MHz GSM radiation on experimental cutaneous candidiasis. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 24(4):907-914. May 2017.



RF radiation induced genotoxic & carcinogenic effects on chickpea root tip cells

Qureshi ST , Memon SA, Abassi AR, Sial MA, Bughio FA. Radiofrequency radiations induced genotoxic and carcinogenic effects on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) root tip cells. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 24(4):883-391. May 2017.



Static Electric Fields

Biological effects of exposure to static electric fields in humans and vertebrates: a systematic review

Petri AK, Schmiedchen K, Stunder D, Dechent D, Kraus T, Bailey WH, Driessen S. Biological effects of exposure to static electric fields in humans and vertebrates: a systematic review. Environ Health. 2017 Apr 17;16(1):41. doi: 10.1186/s12940-017-0248-y.



Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: http://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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