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EMF Studies

31 May 2017

Twelve New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (24 May 2017)

Twelve new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 24 May 2017


Canadian data from INTERPHONE study of mobile phone use and head tumor risk reported for the first time

Since the 13-nation Interphone study was published in 2010, several methods papers have been published that reanalyze the data to correct for biases in the original paper. In most instances the glioma risk estimates increased after adjustment for study biases among long term or heavy mobile phone users.

The following paper just published in the American Journal of Epidemiology applies statistical adjustments to the Interphone data from Canada. The authors found that the risk estimate for glioma among the highest quartile of cell phone users increased after adjustment. Risk estimates for other types of head tumors did not change.

The substantive results reported for glioma risk in Canada should be of interest to Health Canada. The original Canadian Interphone study data which had not been reported previously found a statistically significant doubling of risk for glioma among the highest quartile of cell phone users (over 558 lifetime hours). In contrast, the original 13-nation Interphone study found a 1.4-fold increase in glioma among the highest decile of use (1640 or more lifetime hours). After adjustment for selection and recall bias, the 2.0 odds ratio originally found in Canada increased to 2.2. Among the potential explanations the authors provided for this disparity between Canada and the 13-nation study (which included Canadian data):

"real differences in risk related to different communication technologies between Canada and other INTERPHONE countries."

Momoli F, Siemiatycki J, McBride ML, Parent MÉ, Richardson L, Bedard D, Platt R, Vrijheid M, Cardis E, Krewski D. Probabilistic multiple-bias modelling applied to the Canadian data from the INTERPHONE study of mobile phone use and risk of glioma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. Am J Epidemiol. 2017 May 23. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx157. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

We undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the thirteen-country INTERPHONE case-control study (2001-2004), which evaluated the association between mobile phone use and risk of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. The main publication of the multinational INTERPHONE study concluded that "biases and errors prevent a causal interpretation". We applied a probabilistic multiple-bias model to address possible biases simultaneously, using validation data from billing records and non-participant questionnaires as information on recall error and selective participation. Our modelling sought to adjust for these sources of uncertainty and to facilitate interpretation. For glioma, the odds ratio comparing highest quartile of use (over 558 lifetime hours) to non-regular users was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.4). The odds ratio was 2.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 4.1) when adjusted for selection and recall biases. There was little evidence of an increase in the risk of meningioma, acoustic neuroma, or parotid gland tumors in relation to mobile phone use. Adjustments for selection and recall biases did not materially affect interpretation in our Canadian results.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28535174


Excerpts

The OR of 2.0 for glioma in the highest cumulative exposure category (558+ hours of cumulative call time) in the Canadian study is higher than the value of 1.4 in the highest cumulative exposure category (1640+ hours) in the international study (4). This may simply reflect sampling variability, differential biases between study centers, matching strategies, or real differences in risk related to different communication technologies between Canada and other INTERPHONE countries (see appendix of (27)).

Unlike in the Canadian data, the INTERPHONE multinational study found marked decreased risk associated with most measures of phone use and an increased risk only in the highest decile of use. The study Group concluded that “biases and errors prevent a causal interpretation” (4, pg.1). To the extent that the bias model applied in the present re-analysis of the Canadian data is reasonable, conventional modelling of existing data likely resulted in slight underestimation of the magnitude of associations; however, interpretation of bias-adjusted results would not have materially changed from the original Canadian results.

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Mobile phone use and glioma risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Yang M, Guo W, Yang C, Tang J, Huang Q, Feng S, Jiang A, Xu X, Jiang G. Mobile phone use and glioma risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017 May 4;12(5):e0175136. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175136.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Many studies have previously investigated the potential association between mobile phone use and the risk of glioma. However, results from these individual studies are inconclusive and controversial. The objective of our study was to investigate the potential association between mobile phone use and subsequent glioma risk using meta-analysis.

METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the Science Citation Index Embase and PubMed databases for studies reporting relevant data on mobile phone use and glioma in 1980-2016. The data were extracted and measured in terms of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the random effects model. Subgroup analyses were also carried out. This meta-analysis eventually included 11 studies comprising a total 6028 cases and 11488 controls.

RESULTS: There was a significant positive association between long-term mobile phone use (minimum, 10 years) and glioma (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.08-1.91). And there was a significant positive association between long-term ipsilateral mobile phone use and the risk of glioma (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.12-1.92). Long-term mobile phone use was associated with 2.22 times greater odds of low-grade glioma occurrence (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69-2.92). Mobile phone use of any duration was not associated with the odds of high-grade glioma (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72-0.92). Contralateral mobile phone use was not associated with glioma regardless of the duration of use. Similarly, this association was not observed when the analysis was limited to high-grade glioma.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that long-term mobile phone use may be associated with an increased risk of glioma. There was also an association between mobile phone use and low-grade glioma in the regular use or long-term use subgroups. However, current evidence is of poor quality and limited quantity. It is therefore necessary to conduct large sample, high quality research or better characterization of any potential association between long-term ipsilateral mobile phone use and glioma risk.

Open Access Paper: http://bit.ly/2peeylc

Three additional reviews of mobile phone use and brain tumor research published in 2017:http://bit.ly/2mg6NFg

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Neurodevelopment for first 3 years following prenatal mobile phone use, RF radiation & lead exposure

Kyung-Hwa Choi, Mina Ha, Eun-Hee Ha, Hyesook Park, Yangho Kim, Yun-Chul Hong, Ae-Kyoung Lee, Jong Hwa Kwon, Hyung-Do Choi, Nam Kim, Suejin Kim, Choonghee Park. Neurodevelopment for the first three years following prenatal mobile phone use, radio frequency radiation and lead exposure. Environmental Research, 156:810-817, July 2017.

Highlights• RFR exposure was measured by mobile phone use questionnaire and 24-h personal exposure meter among pregnant women.• Child neurodevelopment was assessed by trained examiners at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age.• Associations were not observed between prenatal exposure to RFR and child neurodevelopment during the first three years.• A potential combined effect of prenatal exposure to lead and mobile phone use was suggested.
AbstractBackground Studies examining prenatal exposure to mobile phone use and its effect on child neurodevelopment show different results, according to child's developmental stages.

Objectives To examine neurodevelopment in children up to 36 months of age, following prenatal mobile phone use and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure, in relation to prenatal lead exposure.

Methods We analyzed 1198 mother-child pairs from a prospective cohort study (the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study). Questionnaires were provided to pregnant women at ≤20 weeks of gestation to assess mobile phone call frequency and duration. A personal exposure meter (PEM) was used to measure RFR exposure for 24 h in 210 pregnant women. Maternal blood lead level (BLL) was measured during pregnancy. Child neurodevelopment was assessed using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age. Logistic regression analysis applied to groups classified by trajectory analysis showing neurodevelopmental patterns over time.

Results The psychomotor development index (PDI) and the mental development index (MDI) at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age were not significantly associated with maternal mobile phone use during pregnancy. However, among children exposed to high maternal BLL in utero, there was a significantly increased risk of having a low PDI up to 36 months of age, in relation to an increasing average calling time (p-trend=0.008). There was also a risk of having decreasing MDI up to 36 months of age, in relation to an increasing average calling time or frequency during pregnancy (p-trend=0.05 and 0.007 for time and frequency, respectively). There was no significant association between child neurodevelopment and prenatal RFR exposure measured by PEM in all subjects or in groups stratified by maternal BLL during pregnancy.

Conclusions We found no association between prenatal exposure to RFR and child neurodevelopment during the first three years of life; however, a potential combined effect of prenatal exposure to lead and mobile phone use was suggested.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28511138

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Multiple assessment methods of prenatal exposure to radio frequency radiation from telecommunication in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study

Choi KH, Ha M, Burm E, Ha EH, Park H, Kim Y, Lee AK, Kwon JH, Choi HD, Kim N. Multiple assessment methods of prenatal exposure to radio frequency radiation from telecommunication in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2016 Nov 18;29(6):959-972. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00803. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from telecommunication using a mobile phone questionnaire, operator data logs of mobile phone use and a personal exposure meter (PEM).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 1228 mother-infants pairs from the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study - a multicenter prospective cohort study ongoing since 2006, in which participants were enrolled at ≤ 20 weeks of pregnancy, with a follow-up of a child birth and growth to assess the association between prenatal environmental exposure and children's health. The questionnaire included the average calling frequency per day and the average calling time per day. An EME Spy 100 PEM was used to measure RFR among 269 pregnant women from November 2007 to August 2010. The operators' log data were obtained from 21 participants. The Spearman's correlation test was performed to evaluate correlation coefficient and 95% confidence intervals between the mobile phone use information from the questionnaire, operators' log data, and data recorded by the PEM.

RESULTS: The operators' log data and information from the self-reported questionnaire showed significantly high correlations in the average calling frequency per day (ρ = 0.6, p = 0.004) and average calling time per day (ρ = 0.5, p = 0.02). The correlation between information on the mobile phone use in the self-reported questionnaire and exposure index recorded by the PEM was poor. But correlation between the information of the operators' log data and exposure index for transmission of mobile communication was significantly high: correlation coefficient (p-value) was 0.44 (0.07) for calling frequency per day, and it was 0.49 (0.04) for calling time per day.

CONCLUSIONS: The questionnaire information on the mobile phone use showed moderate to high quality. Using multiple methods for exposure assessment might be better than using only one method.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869246

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Mobile phone use, blood lead levels, and attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children: a longitudinal study

Byun YH, Ha M, Kwon HJ, Hong YC, Leem JH, Sakong J, Kim SY, Lee CG, Kang D, Choi HD, Kim N. Mobile phone use, blood lead levels, and attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children: a longitudinal study. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59742. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059742.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to children's brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) considering the modifying effect of lead exposure.

METHODS: A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. Parents or guardians were administered a questionnaire including the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale and questions about mobile phone use, as well as socio-demographic factors. The ADHD symptom risk for mobile phone use was estimated at two time points using logistic regression and combined over 2 years using the generalized estimating equation model with repeatedly measured variables of mobile phone use, blood lead, and ADHD symptoms, adjusted for covariates.

RESULTS: The ADHD symptom risk associated with mobile phone use for voice calls but the association was limited to children exposed to relatively high lead.

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to lead and RF from mobile phone use was associated with increased ADHD symptom risk, although possible reverse causality could not be ruled out.

Open Access Paper: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0059742

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Pulsed radiofrequency radiation, and epigenetics: How wireless technologies may affect childhood development
Sage C, Burgio E. Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed radiofrequency radiation, and epigenetics: How wireless technologies may affect childhood development. Child Development. Published online May 15, 2017.

Abstract

Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes due to exposure to wireless technologies. Symptoms of retarded memory, learning, cognition, attention, and behavioral problems have been reported in numerous studies and are similarly manifested in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, as a result of EMF and RFR exposures where both epigenetic drivers and genetic (DNA) damage are likely contributors. Technology benefits can be realized by adopting wired devices for education to avoid health risk and promote academic achievement.

Conclusions

Public health implications of wireless technologies are enormous because there has been a very rapid global deployment in homes, education, transportation, and health care in the last two decades. Even a small risk from chronic use wireless technologies may have a profound global health impact. Impacts on the fetus via parental exposures to wireless devices preconception and during in utero development, infant rearing (baby monitors, wireless surveillance, Wi-Fi routers, DECT cordless phones, etc.), and childhood preschool and academic environments all may contribute in incremental ways to a perpetually saturated habitat of wireless emissions, and health impacts from the chronic, stressful body burden of EMF and RFR.

The wide array of pathophysiological effects of EMF and RFR exposures from wireless sources do not require “the breaking of molecular bonds” as done by ionizing radiation in order for physiologically damaging effects to occur. Epigenetic mechanisms alone can change fetal development in profound ways, disrupting health by causing changes in gene activation and expression without change in gene sequences. Environmental epigenetic influences in the fetal and neonatal development (i.e., epigenetic regulation of genes rather than direct genetic effects by gene mutation) have been plausibly established to cause pathophysiological changes that can result in altered neurological development. Symptoms of neurodevelopmental problems in children like retarded memory, learning, cognition, attention, and behavioral aberrations that are similarly expressed in autism and ADHD have been reported in numerous scientific studies to occur as a result of EMF and RFR exposures, where epigenetic drivers are the most likely causes, and persistent exposures contribute to chronic dysfunction, overwhelming adaptive biological responses.

Electronic educational technologies have not resulted in better academic achievement globally and lend support to scientific studies showing adverse health and developmental impacts (OECD, 2015). Reductions in preventable exposures to EMF and RFR should be a top public health and school district priority. Technology benefits can be realized by adopting wired devices for education, to avoid health risk and promote academic achievement. Wider recognition that epigenetic factors are a plausible mechanism for EMF/RFR to regulate expression of DNA and thus impact child development is a critical need. Whether future research can identify safe levels of wireless exposures is unknown, but further investigation of epigenetic markers related to EMF/RFR exposure in child development and disease is warranted.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.12824/abstract

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Effects of Mobile Phones on Children's and Adolescents’ Health: A Commentary

Lennart Hardell. Effects of Mobile Phones on Children's and Adolescents’ Health: A Commentary. Child Development. Published online May 15, 2017.

Abstract

The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless phone. An evaluation of the scientific evidence on the brain tumor risk was made in May 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at World Health Organization. The scientific panel reached the conclusion that RF radiation from devices that emit nonionizing RF radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz–300 GHz is a Group 2B, that is, a “possible” human carcinogen. With respect to health implications of digital (wireless) technologies, it is of importance that neurological diseases, physiological addiction, cognition, sleep, and behavioral problems are considered in addition to cancer. Well-being needs to be carefully evaluated as an effect of changed behavior in children and adolescents through their interactions with modern digital technologies.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.12831/abstract

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Can Non-Ionizing Radiation Cause Cancer?

Magda Havas. Can Non-Ionizing Radiation Cause Cancer? Archives of Physics Research, 2017, 8 (1):1-2.

Abstract

Our exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) has been increasing steadily with our use of electricity, electronic equipment and-more recently-with our use of wireless technology. Concurrently, epidemiological studies have been documenting an increased cancer risk for people who use cell phones for 10 years or more [1,2] and for those who live near cell phone base stations [3,4,5], broadcast antennas [6,7], radar installations [8], or powerlines [9]. Health care authorities and physicists dismiss these studies because non-ionizing radiation doesn’t have enough energy to break chemical bonds and, hence cannot cause cancer. Right? Wrong!

Open Access Paper: http://www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com/articles/can-nonionizing-radiation-cause-cancer.pdf

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Increasing levels of saliva alpha amylase in electrohypersensitive (EHS) patients

Andrianome S, Hugueville L, de Seze R, Selmaoui B. Increasing levels of saliva alpha amylase in electrohypersensitive (EHS) patients.Int J Radiat Biol. 2017 May 3:1-24. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2017.1325971. [Epub ahead of print].

Abstract

THE PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess the level of various salivary and urinary markers of patients with EHS and to compare them with those of the healthy control group.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed samples from 30 EHS individuals and a matched control group of 25 individuals (non EHS) aged between 22 and 66. We quantified cortisol both in saliva and urine, alpha amylase (sAA), immunoglobulin A and C Reactive Protein levels in saliva and neopterin in urine (uNeopterin).

RESULTS: sAA was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.005) in the EHS group. uNeopterin and sAA analysis showed a significant difference based on the duration of EHS.

CONCLUSION: Higher level of sAA in EHS participants may suggest that the sympathetic adrenal medullar system is activated. However, most of the analyzed markers of the immune system, sympathetic activity and circadian rhythm did not vary significantly in EHS group. There is a trend to the higher levels of some variables in subgroups according to the EHS duration.

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Long-term exposure to continuous 900 MHz EMF disrupts cerebellar morphology in young adult male rats

Aslan A, İkinci A, Baş O, Sönmez OF, Kaya H, Odacı E. Long-term exposure to a continuous 900 MHz electromagnetic field disrupts cerebellar morphology in young adult male rats. Biotech Histochem. 2017 May 16:1-7. doi: 10.1080/10520295.2017.1310295. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The pathological effects of exposure to an electromagnetic field (EMF) during childhood and adolescence may be greater than those from exposure during adulthood. We investigated possible pathological changes in the cerebellum of adolescent rats exposed to 900 MHz EMF daily for 25 days. We used three groups of six 21-day-old male rats as follows: unexposed control group (Non-EG), sham-exposed group (Sham-EG) and an EMF-exposed group (EMF-EG). EMF-EG rats were exposed to EMF in an EMF cage for 1 h daily from postnatal days 21 through 46. Sham-EG rats were placed in the EMF cage for 1 h daily, but were not subjected to EMF. No procedures were performed on the Non-EG rats. The cerebellums of all animals were removed on postnatal day 47, sectioned and stained with cresyl violet for histopathological and stereological analyses. We found significantly fewer Purkinje cells in the EMF-EG group than in the Non-EG and Sham-EG groups. Histopathological evaluation revealed alteration of normal Purkinje cell arrangement and pathological changes including intense staining of neuron cytoplasm in the EMF-EG group. We found that exposure to continuous 900 MHz EMF for 1 h/day during adolescence can disrupt cerebellar morphology and reduce the number of Purkinje cells in adolescent rats.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28506085

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Ten gigahertz microwave radiation impairs spatial memory, enzymes activity, and histopathology of developing mice brain

Sharma A, Kesari KK, Saxena VK, Sisodia R. Ten gigahertz microwave radiation impairs spatial memory, enzymes activity, and histopathology of developing mice brain. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s11010-017-3051-8.

Abstract

For decades, there has been an increasing concern about the potential hazards of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields that are present in the environment and alarming as a major pollutant or electro-pollutant for health risk and neuronal diseases. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the effects of 10 GHz microwave radiation on developing mice brain. Two weeks old mice were selected and divided into two groups (i) sham-exposed and (ii) microwave-exposed groups. Animals were exposed for 2 h/day for 15 consecutive days. After the completion of exposure, within an hour, half of the animals were autopsied immediately and others were allowed to attain 6 weeks of age for the follow-up study. Thereafter results were recorded in terms of various biochemical, behavioral, and histopathological parameters. Body weight result showed significant changes immediately after treatment, whereas non-significant changes were observed in mice attaining 6 weeks of age. Several other endpoints like brain weight, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, protein, catalase, and superoxide dismutase were also found significantly (p < 0.05) altered in mice whole brain. These significant differences were found immediately after exposure and also in follow-up on attaining 6 weeks of age in microwave exposure group. Moreover, statistically significant (p < 0.001) effect was investigated in spatial memory of the animals, in learning to locate the position of platform in Morris water maze test. Although in probe trial test, sham-exposed animals spent more time in searching for platform into the target quadrant than in opposite or other quadrants. Significant alteration in histopathological parameters (qualitative and quantitative) was also observed in CA1 region of the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and ansiform lobule of cerebellum. Results from the present study concludes that the brain of 2 weeks aged mice was very sensitive to microwave exposure as observed immediately after exposure and during follow-up study at 6 weeks of age.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28470342

Excerpt

All animals were kept in such position, where the head of animals faced the horn antenna. The horn antenna was kept in H (Magnetic field) plane configuration, where electric field was perpendicular to the ground surface. Field was almost uniform because the dimension of the cage was of the order of wavelength. The maximum power density 0.25 mW/cm2 was recorded at the near field distance from the horn antenna. A power meter measured the emitted power of microwaves, which was a peak sensitive device ... The whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.1790 W/kg ... Similar experiment with same number of sham-exposed animals was performed without energizing the microwave exposure system.

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Ameliorative effect of gallic acid on pancreas lesions induced by 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi in young rats

Senay Topsakal, Ozlem Ozmen, Ekrem Cicek, Selcuk Comlekci. The ameliorative effect of gallic acid on pancreas lesions induced by 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) in young rats. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Available online 4 May 2017.

Highlights

• Effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on pancreata examined by immunohistochemical level.
• EMR exposure has been caused both endocrine and endocrine pancreas problems.
• Our results indicate that possible relation with EMR and pancreatic lesions in developmental ages.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the pancreas tissue of young rats and the ameliorative effect of Gallic acid (GA). Six-week-old, 48 male rats were equally divided into four groups: Sham group, EMR group (2.45 GHz), EMR (2.45 GHz)+GA group (30 mg/kg/daily) orally and GA group (30 mg/kg/daily). After 30 days, serum and pancreatic tissue samples were harvested for biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Serum amylase, lipase, glucose, and tissue malondialdehyde, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index were increased, whereas total antioxidant status decreased in the EMR group. The histopathological examination of the pancreases indicated slight degenerative changes in some pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells and slight inflammatory cell infiltrations in the EMR group. At the immunohistochemical examination, marked increase was observed in calcitonin gene related protein and Prostaglandin E2 expressions in pancreatic cells in this group. There were no changes in interleukin-6 expirations. GA ameliorated biochemical and pathological findings in the EMR+GA group. These findings clearly demonstrate that EMR can cause degenerative changes in both endocrine and exocrine pancreas cells in rats during the developmental period and GA has an ameliorative effect.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1687850717300468

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Effects of Intermittent and Continuous Magnetic Fields on Trace Element Levels in Guinea Pigs

Erdem O, Akay C, Cevher SC, Canseven AG, Aydın A, Seyhan N. Effects of Intermittent and Continuous Magnetic Fields on Trace Element Levels in Guinea Pigs.Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017 May 22. doi: 10.1007/s12011-017-1053-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can affect living cells due to biochemical changes, followed by changes in levels of trace elements in serum and different organs. This study focuses on the effect of whole body exposure to EMF, presented everywhere in our environment, and on the levels of trace elements in serum, femur, brain, kidney, and liver tissues. The analyses performed on 29 guinea pigs were divided into five groups. Guinea pigs were exposed to a magnetic field of 50 Hz of 1.5 mT. Groups A and B were exposed to the magnetic field for a period of 4 h/day continuously (4 h/day) for 4 and 7 days, respectively. Groups C and D were exposed to the magnetic field for a period of 4 h/day intermittently for 4 and 7 days, respectively. Group E animals were enrolled as control. Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in serum, femur, brain, kidney, and liver tissues in all guinea pigs. When compared to the control groups, the changes in the levels of Cu in serum samples, femur, and kidney tissues of the treated groups were statistically significant. The same was also true for the levels of Mg in the brain, kidney, and lung tissues. Our results suggest that in vivo continuous and intermittent exposure to EMF may cause disturbances in homeostasis of bioelements. These effects could be important risk factors for toxic effects of EMF, especially in relation to deterioration of bioelements.

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Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: http://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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