Raise awareness of environmental health issues in order to better protect our children and future generations.

21 August 2017

Fifteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (18 August 2017)

Fifteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, August 18, 2017


Modified health effects of non-ionizing EMR combined with other agents reported in the biomedical literature

Kostoff RN, Lau CGY. Modified health effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation combined with other agents reported in the biomedical literature. In C.D. Geddes (ed.), Microwave Effects on DNA and Proteins. Switzerland: Springer, pp. 97-158.DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-50289-2. 2017.

AbstractIonizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation, either stand-alone or in combination with other agents, exert health effects on biological systems. The present chapter examines the scope of non-ionizing EMF radiation combined effects; i.e., identifies effects on biological systems from combined exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields/radiation and at least one other agent. Only articles in which the presence of non-ionizing EMF radiation had some effect (beneficial or adverse) on the biological system were selected. A comprehensive and novel query was developed using an iterative hybrid approach, whereby articles related by common text and by citation linkages were retrieved. This retrieved literature was: (1) clustered algorithmically into 32 biomedical sub-themes (assigned by the authors); (2) grouped through factor analysis into 32 factors; and (3) subsequently grouped manually (by the authors) into an effects-based taxonomy. The common principles within each thematic cluster/group that accounted for the combined effects were identified. Non-ionizing EMF radiation plays a supportive role in a wide range of beneficial and adverse effects. Major beneficial effects include (1) accelerated healing of wounds and injuries in concert with other agents and (2) treatment of cancer by combining chemotherapy with radiation. Major adverse effects, on the other hand, include (1) enhanced carcinogenesis, (2) enhanced cellular or genetic mutations, and (3) teratogenicity. It should be noted that community consensus (unanimity among papers published in peer-reviewed journals) does not exist on these potential effects, either beneficial or adverse, although there is substantial credible scientific evidence supporting the above effects (as described in this chapter).

Open access chapter: http://stip.gatech.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/371048_1_En_4_Chapter_OnlinePDF.pdf


Multiple sclerosis and environmental risk factors: a case-control study in Iran

Abbasi M, Nabavi SM, Fereshtehnejad SM, Jou NZ, Ansari I, Shayegannejad V, Mohammadianinejad SE, Farhoudi M, Noorian A, Razazian N, Abedini M, Faraji F.
Multiple sclerosis and environmental risk factors: a case-control study in Iran. Neurol Sci. 2017 Aug 10. doi: 10.1007/s10072-017-3080-9.


Studies have shown an increase in the incidence of MS in Iran. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental exposure and MS in Iran. This case-control study was conducted on 660 MS patients and 421 controls. Many environmental factors are compared between the two groups. Our findings demonstrated that prematurity ([OR = 4.99 (95% CI 1.34-18.68), P = 0.017]), history of measles and mumps ([OR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.05-2.45), P = 0.029; OR = 1.85 (95% CI 1.22-2.78), P = 0.003, respectively]), breast feeding [OR = 2.90 (95% CI 1.49-5.65), P = 0.002], head trauma in childhood ([OR = 8.21 (95% CI 1.56-43.06), P = 0.013]), vaccination in adulthood ([OR = 4.57 (95% CI 1.14-18.41), P = 0.032, respectively]), migraine ([OR = 3.50 (95% CI 1.61-7.59), P = 0.002]), family history of MS, IBD, migraine, and collagen vascular diseases ([OR = 2.73 (95% CI 1.56-4.78), P < 0.001], [OR = 3.14 (95% CI 1.460-6.78), P = 0.004; OR = 3.18 (95% CI 1.83-5.53), P < 0.001; OR = 1.81 (95% CI 1.03-3.20), P = 0.040, respectively]), stressful events ([OR = 32.57 (95% CI 17.21-61.64), P < 0.001]), and microwave exposure ([OR = 3.55 (95% CI 2.24-5.63), P ≤0.001]) were more in the MS group. Sun exposure ([OR = 0.09 (95% CI 0.02-0.38), P = 0.001]), dairy and calcium consumption ([OR = 0.44 (95% CI 0.27-0.71), P = 0.001]), diabetes mellitus ([OR = 0.11 (95% CI 0.01-00.99), P = 0.049], and complete vaccination during childhood appeared to decreased MS risk. Our results investigated many risk factors and protective factors in Iran.



[44.3% of the MS cases used a microwave oven more than 3 times a week compared to 19.9% of the controls (adjusted OR = 3.55, 95% CI= 2.24 - 5.63)].

It seems that the increase in MS prevalence is due to environmental factors. As a result of disability and high cost, prevention of environmental risk factors is important. The result demonstrated that the most modifiable risk factors in Iranian population were stressful event and microwave exposure. Also, the most protective modifiable factors were sun exposure and calcium supplement consumption. However, more studies are required to evaluate the potential risk factors in a geographical area such as Iran with increasing prevalence in MS.


Human exposure to pulsed fields in the frequency range from 6 to 100 GHz

Laakso I, Morimoto R, Heinonen J, Jokela K, Hirata A. Human exposure to pulsed fields in the frequency range from 6 to 100 GHz. Phys Med Biol. 2017 Aug 9;62(17):6980-6992. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/aa81fe.


Restrictions on human exposure to electromagnetic waves at frequencies higher than 3-10 GHz are defined in terms of the incident power density to prevent excessive temperature rise in superficial tissue. However, international standards and guidelines differ in their definitions of how the power density is interpreted for brief exposures. This study investigated how the temperature rise was affected by exposure duration at frequencies higher than 6 GHz. Far-field exposure of the human face to pulses shorter than 10 s at frequencies from 6 to 100 GHz was modelled using the finite-difference time-domain method. The bioheat transfer equation was used for thermal modelling. We investigated the effects of frequency, polarization, exposure duration, and depth below the skin surface on the temperature rise. The results indicated limitations in the current human exposure guidelines and showed that radiant exposure, i.e. energy absorption per unit area, can be used to limit temperature rise for pulsed exposure. The data are useful for the development of human exposure guidelines at frequencies higher than 6 GHz.



Figure 2 shows that the hotspot locations depend on the frequency and polarization and often appear in and around fine structures such as the eyelids. However, they can also appear in other locations, most notably in the eyes and cheeks. Future studies should investigate the differences in the absorption pattern and temperature rise in multiple anatomically different individuals. The investigation should also take into account the extent of opening between the eyelids,

.. our results showed that relatively long exposure averaging times used in current ICNIRP guidelines may not provide adequate protection in the case of brief, intense pulsed exposure (figure 4). An additional limit defined for the maximum radiant exposure could provide protection from short pulse exposure. It is important to note that the effect of exposure duration diminishes as the frequency decreases (figure 5). Therefore, separate consideration for pulsed exposure is relevant only at frequencies higher than 10 GHz.

In conclusion, this study addressed the issue of pulsed exposure, which is currently treated differently in different international guidelines and standards. The results showed the effects of non-uniform energy absorption, exposure duration, and frequency on the temperature rise, and are useful for the development of human exposure guidelines at frequencies higher than 6 GHz.


Assessment of fetal exposure to 4G LTE tablet in realistic scenarios: Effect of position, gestational age and frequency

Chiaramello E, Parazzini M, Fiocchi S, Ravazzani P, Wiart J. Assessment of fetal exposure to 4G LTE tablet in realistic scenarios: Effect of position, gestational age and frequency. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. PP:90. 2017.


The continuous development of Radio-Frequency (RF) devices used in every-day life highlights the need of conducting appropriate health risk assessment due to Radio- Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF) exposure, especially for the fetal exposure in realistic scenarios. In this study, we used stochastic dosimetry, an approach that combines electromagnetic computational techniques and statistics, to assess the fetal exposure to a 4G LTE tablet in realistic scenarios, assessing the influence of the position of the tablet, the gestational age of the fetus and the frequency of the emitting antenna. Results showed that the exposure in terms of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) was within the limits of the ICNIRP 1998 general public Guidelines in all the considered scenarios. The position of the tablet was very influential for the induced SAR in the fetus, resulting in Quartile Coefficient of Dispersion always higher than 40%. The level of exposure for the later pregnancy was found to be higher than those for the early pregnancy. As to the effect of the emitting frequency of the tablet, we found that the higher the frequency, the lower the induced SAR in the fetus.



Fig.2 shows, as example, some preliminary results referred to the exposure of the 9-months GA fetus to the 4G LTE tablet in a generic position among those described in Fig.1. All the reported SAR values have been normalized to a radiated power equal to 1 W. In this specific position, among all fetal tissues, adrenal gland, gallbladder and kidney showed SARWT values slightly higher than 5 mW/kg. Considering the pSAR1gT values, among all tissues skin, small intestine, muscle and kidney showed values higher than 10 mW/kg (with maximum of 22 mW/kg in the skin tissue).

Nature relatedness is connected with modern health worries and electromagnetic hypersensitivity

Dömötör Z, Szemerszky R, Köteles F. Nature relatedness is connected with modern health worries and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. J Health Psychol. 2017 Mar 1:1359105317699681. doi: 10.1177/1359105317699681.


Although nature relatedness is considered a positive characteristic, its relationship to constructs involving worries about the negative effects of artificial environmental factors is also feasible. A questionnaire assessing modern health worries, electrosensitivity, somatosensory amplification, spirituality, and nature relatedness was completed by 510 individuals. Nature relatedness was related to electrosensitivity, modern health worries, and spirituality. In a binary logistic regression analysis, somatosensory amplification, modern health worries, and nature relatedness were associated with electrosensitivity, and nature relatedness moderated the connection between modern health worries and electrosensitivity. In naive representations, "natural" might be associated with health, whereas "modern" and "artificial" evoke negative associations.



Thermal mapping on male genital and skin tissues of laptop thermal sources and electromagnetic interaction
Safari M, Mosleminiya N, Abdolali A. Thermal mapping on male genital and skin tissues of laptop thermal sources and electromagnetic interaction.
Bioelectromagnetics. 2017 Aug 11. doi: 10.1002/bem.22068.


Since the development of communication devices and expansion of their applications, there have been concerns about their harmful health effects. The main aim of this study was to investigate laptop thermal effects caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields and thermal sources simultaneously; propose a nondestructive, replicable process that is less expensive than clinical measurements; and to study the effects of positioning any new device near the human body in steady state conditions to ensure safety by U.S. and European standard thresholds. A computer simulation was designed to obtain laptop heat flux from SolidWorks flow simulation. Increase in body temperature due to heat flux was calculated, and antenna radiation was calculated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio software. Steady state temperature and specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution in user's body, and heat flux beneath the laptop, were obtained from simulations. The laptop in its high performance mode caused 420 (W/m2 ) peak two-dimensional heat flux beneath it. The cumulative effect of laptop in high performance mode and 1 W antenna radiation resulted in temperatures of 42.9, 38.1, and 37.2 °C in lap skin, scrotum, and testis, that is, 5.6, 2.1, and 1.4 °C increase in temperature, respectively. Also, 1 W antenna radiation caused 0.37 × 10-3 and 0.13 × 10-1.



Findlay and Dimbylow [2010] carried out one such study on SAR in the body of a sitting 10-year-old at 2.4 and 5 GHz. They found maximum peak localized three-dimensional (3D) SAR of 3.99 × 10−3 (W/kg) in the torso area.

It should be specified that this study only considered thermal effects on men; however, laptop antenna could have non-thermal effects on the user's body or pregnant women, including DNA fraction [Nagaoka et al., 2007; Zoppetti et al., 2011; Avendano et al., 2012], but such non-thermal effects are not considered in the present paper.

Since maximum allowed power consumption for an array of antennas designed for this purpose is 1 W and there were two antennas, each one consumed up to 0.5 W of power. However, in normal conditions, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) antennas can radiate using only 10 mW [Guterman et al., 2009].

It should be noted that the given values of SAR were normalized to 1 W peak antenna power output, while typically a WLAN antenna radiates about 10 mW; therefore, for a real world operating system, maximum SAR of 0.37 × 10−3 and 0.18 × 10−3 (W/kg) is expected for 2 and 1 active antennas, respectively, which are 104 times lower than the European safety limit (2 W/kg) [IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Humans, 2005].

Also, maximum SAR of 0.13 × 10−3 (W/kg) is expected for a WLAN antenna radiation power of about 10 mW operating at 5 GHz, which is still lower than safety limits.

... maximum temperature on surface of scrotum skin of the laptop user in the studied position was 38.1 °C, which was 2.1 °C higher than normal temperature in absence of the laptop in the simulation.It can be inferred from the aforementioned works that increase in scrotal temperature can result in reduction of sperm motility, which consequently enhances the probability of infertility, lessens sperm production, decreases sperm concentration by 56% [Hjollund et al., 2002], increases ROS, and negatively affects sperm morphology, increasing the number of sperm with physical dimensions different from those of normal sperm.

A method of simulating thermal mapping of positioning laptop on laps of an adult man was developed. To tackle this problem, we exploited computer simulation and, to make the simulation close to the actual problem, we created 3D models of an actual laptop (Sony FW 590 Gab), antennas, and human phantom with inhomogeneous body, large number of tissues, and dispersion properties. We employed a commercial laptop Wi-Fi antenna at 2.4 GHz and a dipole antenna at 5 GHz, thermal sources with radiation powers, and human body voxel consisting of 97 tissues which were described previously. In the simulation, maximum SAR in human body was calculated 0.37 × 10−3 and 0.13 × 10−1 (W/kg) at 2.4 and 5 GHz, respectively, which was negligible according to IEEE standards; thus, the major calculated temperature elevation was due to laptop thermal sources. The temperature in glans penis, lap skin, lap muscles, and testes increased up to 37.8, 42.9, 38.8, and 37.2 °C, respectively, which was in line with clinical studies of thermal effect. Hence, the proposed method can be replicated for other scenarios. It is worth noting that the presented result cannot be easily generalized to other devices or human models. However, the whole method is replicable for similar phenomena. The recommended subject for future works can be used with the presented method for determining the effect of laptop and other devices on adult pregnant women and similar cases.


Comparative analysis of downlink signal levels emitted by GSM 900, GSM 1800, UMTS, and LTE base stations

Ibrani M, Hamiti E, Ahma L, Halili R, Dragusha B. Comparative analysis of downlink signal levels emitted by GSM 900, GSM 1800, UMTS, and LTE base stations. Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net), 2017 16th Annual Mediterranean.28-30 June 2017.


Determination of exposure levels is considered as one of the parameters of planning and optimization of green cellular networks. While moving towards 5G technology and standardization, the results of comparative exposure levels induced by 2G, 3G and 4G networks are of interest. We present the results of in-situ determination of downlink signal levels [jn Kosovo] emitted by GSM 900, GSM 1800, UMTS, and LTE networks in urban areas. The measurements are conducted with calibrated spectrum analyzer NARDA SRM 3006 at outdoor and indoor spots, including LOS and NLOS positions. The highest measured value is 2.82 V/m registered in outdoor LOS position for GSM 900. The results of comparative research highlight GSM 900 as the biggest contributor to the overall cellular systems downlink signal level, followed with UMTS, GSM 1800 and LTE. Obtained results are compared with the ICNIRP reference levels as well as with downlink signal levels emitted by cellular systems in other countries.



Cancer occurrences in laboratory rats from exposure to RF and microwave radiation

Lin JC. Cancer Occurrences in Laboratory Rats from Exposure to RF and Microwave Radiation. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. Aug 2, 2017. PP:99.

Health effects of radio frequency (RF) and microwave radiation have been a subject of scientific inquiry and public interest of late because of widespread global usage of mobile communication devices by billions of people everywhere. A minute increase in health risks such as cancer from RF radiation might lead to significant consequences for health of the general public. A recent U.S. government announcement of discovery of rare cancers in rats exposed to RF radiation is an important occurrence. Note that any new or single report should not be viewed in isolation. The U.S. government project was organized to confront the weaknesses of prior laboratory rodent studies on the potential of RF exposure to impact human health such as cancer in controlled environments. Indeed, several published reports on animal cancer investigations involving prolonged exposures to RF radiation are contentious and perplexing. The discrepancies have presented ambiguity in assessing public health threats from RF exposure. It is the objective of this review to provide a critical and analytical synopsis and assessment on current progress in cancers in rats exposed, lifelong, to RF and microwave radiation. Its focus is on laboratory studies involving cancer production and promotion, and survival of experimental rats. Of special interest is carcinogenesis in the head—cancer development in the head. The question of whether RF exposure from wireless and mobile devices and systems poses a health risk would likely remain equivocal and controversial for some time to come.



Mobile phone (1800MHz) radiation impairs female reproduction in mice through stress induced inhibition of ovarian & uterine activity

Shahin S, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM. Mobile Phone (1800MHz) Radiation Impairs Female Reproduction in Mice, Mus musculus, through Stress Induced Inhibition of Ovarian and Uterine Activity. Reprod Toxicol. 2017 Aug 2. pii: S0890-6238(17)30167-3. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.08.001. [Epub ahead of print]

• Mice exposed to mobile phone radiation (MPR) in different operative modes.• Ovarian & uterine histopathology, steroidogenesis & stress parameters were checked.• Degenerative changes & reduced follicle count were observed in MPR exposed ovary.• MPR resulted significant decrease in ovarian steroidogenic proteins & sex steroids.• MPR induced oxidative & nitrosative stress impairs reproductive functions in mice.


Present study investigated the long-term effects of mobile phone (1800MHz) radiation in stand-by, dialing and receiving modes on the female reproductive function (ovarian and uterine histo-architecture, and steroidogenesis) and stress responses (oxidative and nitrosative stress). We observed that mobile phone radiation induces significant elevation in ROS, NO, lipid peroxidation, total carbonyl content and serum corticosterone coupled with significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes in hypothalamus, ovary and uterus of mice. Compared to control group, exposed mice exhibited reduced number of developing and mature follicles as well as corpus lutea. Significantly decreased serum levels of pituitary gonadotrophins (LH, FSH), sex steroids (E2 and P4) and expression of SF-1, StAR, P-450scc, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, cytochrome P-450 aromatase, ER-α and ER-β were observed in all the exposed groups of mice, compared to control. These findings suggest that mobile phone radiation induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, which affects the reproductive performance of female mice.



The effects of electromagnetic radiation (2450 MHz wireless devices) on the heart and blood tissue: role of melatonin

Gumral N, Saygin M, Asci H, Uguz AC, Celik O, Doguc DK, Savas HB, Comlekci S.The effects of electromagnetic radiation (2450 MHz wireless devices) on the heart and blood tissue: role of melatonin. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2016;117(11):665-671. doi: 10.4149/BLL_2016_128.


OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the effects of 2450 MHz EMR on the heart and blood in rat and possible ameliorating effects of melatonin.

MATERIAL AND METHOD: Thirty-two female Wistar Albino rats were randomly grouped (by eight in each group) as follows: Group I: cage-control group (dimethysulfoxide (DMSO), 10mg/kg/day i.p. without stress and EMR. Group II: sham-control rats stayed in restrainer without EMR and DMSO (10mg/kg/day i.p.). Group III: rats exposed to 2450 MHz EMR. Group IV: treated group rats exposed to 2450 MHz EMR+melatonin (MLT) (10mg/kg/day i.p.).

RESULTS: In the blood tissue, there was no significant difference between the groups in respect of erythrocytes GSH, GSH-Px activity, plasma LP level and vitamin A concentration (p > 0.05). However, in the Group IV, erythrocytes' LP levels (p < 0.05) were observed to be significantly decreased while plasma vitamin C, and vitamin E concentrations (p < 0.05) were found to be increased when compared to Group III. In the heart tissues, MDA and NO levels significantly increased in group III compared with groups I and II (p < 0.05). Contrary to these oxidant levels, CAT and SOD enzyme activities decreased significantly in group III compared with groups I and II (p 0.05). Besides, MLT treatment lowered the MDA and NO levels compared with group III.

DISCUSSION: In conclusion, these results demonstrated that contrary to its effect on the heart, the wireless (2450 MHz) devices cause slight oxidative-antioxidative changes in the blood of rats, and a moderate melatonin supplementation may play an important role in the antioxidant system (plasma vitamin C and vitamin E). However, further investigations are required to clarify the mechanism of action of the applied 2450 MHz EMR exposure (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 49).



Effect of 2G and 3G cell phone radiation on developing liver of chick embryo – A comparative study
Mary Hydrina D’Silva MH, Swer RT, Anbalagan J, Rajesh B. Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from 2G and 3G Cell Phone on Developing Liver of Chick Embryo – A Comparative Study. J Clinical Diagnostic Research. 11(7):AC05-AC09. Jul 2017

Introduction: The increasing scientific evidence of various health hazards on exposure of Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) emitted from both the cell phones and base stations have caused significant media attention and public discussion in recent years. The mechanism of interaction of RF fields with developing tissues of children and fetuses may be different from that of adults due to their smaller physical size and variation in tissue electromagnetic properties. The present study may provide an insight into the basic mechanisms by which RF fields interact with developing tissues in an embryo.

Aim: To evaluate the possible tissue and DNA damage in developing liver of chick embryo following chronic exposure to ultra-high frequency/radiofrequency radiation (UHF/RFR) emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone.

Materials and Methods: Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in four groups. Group A-experimental group exposed to 2G radiation (60 eggs), Group B- experimental group exposed to 3G radiation (60 eggs), Group C- sham exposed control group (60 eggs) and Group D– control group (48 eggs). On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies to check structural changes in liver. The nuclear diameter and karyorrhexic changes of hepatocytes were analysed using oculometer and square reticule respectively. The liver procured from one batch of eggs from all the four groups was subjected to alkaline comet assay technique to assess DNA damage. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA test.

Results: In our study, the exposure of developing chick embryos to 2G and 3G cell phone radiations caused structural changes in liver in the form of dilated sinusoidal spaces with haemorrhage, increased vacuolations in cytoplasm, increased nuclear diameter and karyorrhexis and significantly increased DNA damage.

Conclusion: The chronic exposure of chick embryo liver to RFR emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone resulted in various structural changes and DNA damage. The changes were more pronounced in 3G experimental group. Based on these findings it is necessary to create awareness among public about the possible ill effects of RFR exposure from cell phone.



The experimental group, Group–A (exposed to 2G cell phone radiation) and Group–B (exposed to 3G cell phone radiation), were also incubated (60+60 eggs) in a similar manner with the cell phone kept in silent operative mode with head phone plugged in (switched on). This arrangement ensured that the cell phone got activated automatically each time it received a call ...

A popular brand cell phone hand set and a service provider were used for network connection for both 2G and 3G exposure. For exposure activation, the cell phone was rung from another cell phone for duration of three minutes each, every half an hour, with the first exposure given at 12th hour of incubation (4.30 am-4.30 pm). The total exposure for a 12 hour period was 75 minutes followed by 12 hour of exposure-free period. This was repeated daily up to 12th day of incubation.

From our experimental outcome, we conclude that the chronic exposure of chick embryo liver to RFR emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone resulted in various structural changes and DNA damage. The changes were more pronounced in 3G experimental group. Many researchers now opine that cell phones may turn out to be the cigarettes of 21st century as their effects or interactions with biological tissues on long term exposure are yet to be explored especially in foetuses and children. Hence children and pregnant women should use the cell phone with caution. Introduction of new generation phones, 4G and 5G, open a vast potential for future research and whether these changes observed due to RFR exposure are reversible or not on withdrawing the exposure is another arena which warrants further research.


Disturbing honeybees’ behavior with EMF: a methodology

Danial Favre. Disturbing honeybees’ behavior with electromagnetic waves: A methodology.J Behav 2(2): 1010 (2017).


Mobile phone companies and policy makers point to studies with contradictory results and usually claim that there is a lack of scientific proof of adverse effects of electromagnetic fields on animals. The present perspective article describes an experiment on bees, which clearly shows the adverse effects of electromagnetic fields on these insects’ behavior. The experiment should be reproduced by other researchers so that the danger of man-made electromagnetism (for bees, nature and thus humans) ultimately appears evident to anyone.



Effect of DECT cordless phone radiation on exposed, laboratory cultivated maize plants

Stefia AL, Margaritis LH, Christodoulakis NS. The effect of the non-ionizing radiation on exposed, laboratory cultivated maize (Zea mays L.) plants. Flora. 223: 23-20. Aug 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2017.05.008

• Young corn plants exposed to long term radiation from a DECT base-unit.
• No biomass reduction was observed for the exposed plants, after two weeks.
• Photosynthetic pigment content seems unaltered.
• After two weeks, mesophyll chloroplast structure seems not to be affected.
• Bundle sheath chloroplasts severely affected, apprehending repression of a major advantage.


A series of experiments was carried out to investigate possible structural or biochemical effects on young Zea mays plants after a long-term exposure to non-ionizing, continuous radiation emitted from the base unit of a cordless DECT system. Exposed plants, compared to their normal counterparts, do not seem to be affected concerning their sprouting potential, biomass production for both the above ground part and the root, leaf structure, photosynthetic pigment content and their absorbance. The structural profile of the exposed plants seems almost identical to those of the control ones. Biomass production, photosynthetic pigments, leaf structure and chloroplast arrangement do not differ in exposed plants. What seems to be affected is the structure of the chloroplasts accommodated in the bundle sheath cells of the exposed leaves. They suffer a slight swelling of their thylakoids and an undulation of some of the thylakoid membranes. Scarcely a disruption of chloroplast envelope can be observed.



In the middle of one of the two cages, the base unit of a DECT telephone apparatus (General, Model 123) was appropriately positioned (Fig. 2). The DECT base was in a 24 h a day, 7 days a week, pulsed transmission mode, at 1882 MHz, as described elsewhere (Margaritis et al., 2014) while the light/dark programme of the chamber was adjusted to a 16/8 cycle (Stefi et al., 2016, 2017).

Radiation was measured in the two cages, while the DECT device was transmitting within one of them, with a NARDA SRM3000 (Germany) spectrum analyzer. Τhe corresponding electrical field intensity (average and peak), in each experimental setup, was measured for a 6-min period according to ICNIRP (1998) guidelines as in Table 1. Supplementary, low precision measurements were made in the control cage with a broadband field meter (TES-92, 50 MHz–3.5 GHz, Electromagnetic radiation detector – TES Electrical Electronic Corp. Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.) at the value of 490.1 mV/m. In the nearby cage (exposed), radiation reached the value of 27.46 V/m (27.460 mV/m, at 1882 MHz) (55 fold higher).

Concluding, we could say that non-ionizing radiation emitted from devices of everyday use such as mobile phones, DECT phones, tablets, Wi-Fi routers etc, can by no means be considered as “innocent”. Our current results, recent papers for the effects on Arabidopsis thaliana and Gossypium hirsutum (Stefi et al., 2016, 2017), numerous reports from epidemiological researches correlating exposure and clinical disorders such as sleep disorders on children that use mobile phone before sleep (Van den Bulck 2007), promotion of lymphomas and leukemias in adults and children (Hardell et al., 2014) are serious reasons for further consideration.

Moreover, the effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on behavior (Divan et al., 2012), cardiovascular system (Celik and Hascalik 2004), reproduction and development (Margaritis et al., 2014), oxidative stress induction (Esmekaya et al., 2011; Manta et al., 2014), memory deficits (Fragopoulou et al., 2010, Ntzouni et al., 2011) and cancer provocation (Hardell and Carlberg 2009), strongly support the aspect that the problem is far more than serious and public anxiety seems justified.

Taking in to account that:• The function of the C4 chloroplasts is uniquely associated with the function of stomata (Ghannoum, 2008).• Stomata of Z. mays are of the dumbbell – shape type. This type of stomata appears only in Graminae and is unique in structure and function.• The total yield in our experiments was almost similar for both control and exposed plants.• The photosynthetic pigment content, as measured with the UV/Vis Specol photometer, was more or less similar in both control and exposed plants.• Taking into consideration that maize plants are fully mature and pistillate female flowers appear after about two months while corns are harvested three months after sprouting,We may conclude that the differences between control and exposed plants are negligible in spite of the significant structural deformations of the agranal BSC chloroplasts. Moreover, stomatal function seems not to be affected and photosynthesis (even the C4) not to be disturbed by radiation, until this stage of the plant’s life. Finally, we may point out that the deformations observed in the chloroplasts may affect the mature plant by suspending the great advantage of the C4 photosynthesis.


Effect of DECT cordless phone radiation on exposed, laboratory cultivated upland cotton plants

Stefi AL, Margaritis LH, Christodoulakis NS. The effect of the non ionizing radiation on exposed, laboratory cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants. Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants [Internet]. 2017;226:55 - 64.


A series of experiments was carried out to investigate possible structural or biochemical alterations in Gossypium hirsutum plants after a long term (21 days) exposure to non ionizing radiation (1882 MHz) emitted from the base unit of a cordless DECT system. Exposed plants, compared to the negative (matched) controls, seem to be seriously affected. Notably lower biomass production for the above ground part and the root was recorded. Reduction of the photosynthetic pigments and severe damage of the chloroplast structure were also observed. It seems that non ionizing radiation can be noxious for plant life functions.



[same exposure setup as the maize study]

The effect of the non-ionizing radiation at the microwave band, on the Gossypium hirsutum young plants, after a long termexposure, can be considered as significant. The disastrous effect on chloroplast structure, the reduction of the photosynthetic pigments and the suppression of the photosynthetic potential, are the main causes for the significant reduction of the primary productivity. Moreover, a serious effect on the underground part of the plant was recorded but this cannot be evaluated yet.


The aftermath of long-term exposure to non-ionizing radiation on laboratory cultivated pine plants

Stefi AL, Margaritis LH, Christodoulakis NS. The aftermath of long-term exposure to non-ionizing radiation on laboratory cultivated pine plants (Pinus halepensis M.). Flora. 234: 173-186. September 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2017.07.016


• Young pine plants exposed to long term radiation from a DECT base-unit.
• Significant biomass reduction was observed for the exposed plants, after seven weeks.
• Photosynthetic pigment content decreased in the exposed leaves.
• Cotyledon, leaf, stem and root structure seem unaffected.
• Many mesophyll cells severely affected with extensive damages to their chloroplasts.


Sprouts of Pinus halepensis were incubated and cultured in the laboratory under controlled conditions to investigate their response to a long-term exposure to continuous, non-ionizing radiation emitted from the base unit of a cordless DECT system. Exposed plants, compared to their control counterparts, seem to be affected since they exhibit lower sprouting potential, minor fresh weight and biomass for both the above ground part and the root, reduction of their photosynthetic pigments and significantly increased ROS levels. Cotyledon, juvenile leaf, primary shoot and root structure seem similar in both control and exposed plants. What seems to be affected is the structure of chloroplasts in the exposed leaves. Many cells of the exposed leaves possess severely deformed chloroplasts with dilated or destructed thylakoid membranes although disruption of chloroplast envelopes was not observed.



Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: http://www.saferemr.com
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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