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22 October 2017

Fifteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (17 October 2017)

Fifteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, October 17, 2017

Workshop on neurogenerative diseases and magnetic field exposure

The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has announced the International Workshop “Relationship between neurodegenerative diseases and magnetic field exposure – state of knowledge and research perspectives”. It will take place from 12 - 14 December 2017 in Munich, Germany as part of the BfS research initiative on radiation protection in power grid expansion. Several topics like epidemiological evidence of a possible relationship between low frequency magnetic fields and neurodegenerative diseases will be addressed on the workshop. The focus will be Alzheimer’s dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, medical aspects like diagnoses and therapy and on the investigation of action mechanisms with the help of animal and cell models. The aim of the workshop is to summarize the recent state of scientific knowledge and to identify research gaps. Submission of abstracts is possible until November 10. Visit the official homepage for further information and registration.


Mobile phones, cordless phones and rates of brain tumors in different age groups in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cancer Register during 1998-2015

Hardell L, Carlberg M. Mobile phones, cordless phones and rates of brain tumors in different age groups in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cancer Register during 1998-2015. PLoS One. 12(10): e0185461. Published online Oct 4, 2017.


We used the Swedish Inpatient Register (IPR) to analyze rates of brain tumors of unknown type (D43) during 1998–2015. Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) per 100,000 increased with +2.06%, 95% confidence interval (CI) +1.27, +2.86% in both genders combined. A joinpoint was found in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC) 1998–2007 of +0.16%, 95% CI -0.94, +1.28%, and 2007–2015 of +4.24%, 95% CI +2.87, +5.63%. Highest AAPC was found in the age group 20–39 years. In the Swedish Cancer Register the age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 increased for brain tumors, ICD-code 193.0, during 1998–2015 with AAPC in men +0.49%, 95% CI +0.05, +0.94%, and in women +0.33%, 95% CI -0.29, +0.45%. The cases with brain tumor of unknown type lack morphological examination. Brain tumor diagnosis was based on cytology/histopathology in 83% for men and in 87% for women in 1980. This frequency increased to 90% in men and 88% in women in 2015. During the same time period CT and MRI imaging techniques were introduced and morphology is not always necessary for diagnosis. If all brain tumors based on clinical diagnosis with CT or MRI had been reported to the Cancer Register the frequency of diagnoses based on cytology/histology would have decreased in the register. The results indicate underreporting of brain tumor cases to the Cancer Register. The real incidence would be higher. Thus, incidence trends based on the Cancer Register should be used with caution. Use of wireless phones should be considered in relation to the change of incidence rates.



Recent advances in the effects of microwave radiation on brains

Wei-Jia Zhi, Li-Feng Wang, Xiang-Jun Hu. Recent advances in the effects of microwave radiation on brains. Military Medical Research. December 2017, 4:29. Published online: 21 September 2017.


This study concerns the effects of microwave on health because they pervade diverse fields of our lives. The brain has been recognized as one of the organs that is most vulnerable to microwave radiation. Therefore, in this article, we reviewed recent studies that have explored the effects of microwave radiation on the brain, especially the hippocampus, including analyses of epidemiology, morphology, electroencephalograms, learning and memory abilities and the mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction. However, the problem with these studies is that different parameters, such as the frequency, modulation, and power density of the radiation and the irradiation time, were used to evaluate microwave radiation between studies. As a result, the existing data exhibit poor reproducibility and comparability. To determine the specific dose-effect relationship between microwave radiation and its biological effects, more intensive studies must be performed.

Open Access Review Paper: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40779-017-0139-0


Mobile Phone Use and The Risk of Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies

Wang J, Su H1, Xie W, Yu S. Mobile Phone Use and The Risk of Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 3;7(1):12595. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12802-9.


Headache is increasingly being reported as a detrimental effect of mobile phone (MP) use. However, studies aimed to investigate the association between MP use and headache yielded conflicting results. To assess the consistency of the data on the topic, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available cross-sectional studies. Published literature from PubMed and other databases were retrieved and screened, and 7 cross-sectional studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. We found that the risk of headache was increased by 38% in MP user compared with non-MP user (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18-1.61, p < 0.001). Among MP users, the risk of headache was also increased in those who had longer daily call duration (2-15 min vs. <2 min: OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.34-1.98, p < 0.001; >15 min vs. <2 min: OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.76-3.54, p < 0.001) and higher daily call frequency (2-4 calls vs. <2 calls: OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76, p < 0.001; >4 calls vs. <2 calls: OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.78-3.58, p < 0.001). Our data indicate that MP use is significantly associated with headache, further epidemiologic and experimental studies are required to affirm and understand this association.



Effects of electromagnetic waves emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems on human semen analysis

Kamali K, Atarod M, Sarhadi S, Nikbakht J, Emami M, Maghsoudi R, Salimi H, Fallahpour B, Kamali N, Momtazan A, Ameli M. Effects of electromagnetic waves emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems on human semen analysis. Urologia. 2017 Sep 14:0. doi: 10.5301/uj.5000269.


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3G+wifi modems on human sperm quality.A total of 40 semen specimens were gathered between March and September 2015, from healthy adult men.

METHODS: The sperm samples were divided into two groups - 3G+wi-fi exposed and unexposed groups. In the unexposed group, the specimens were shielded by aluminum foil in three layers and put into an incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 50 minutes. The exposed group was positioned in another room in an incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 50 minutes. A 3G+wi-fi modem was put into the same incubator and a laptop computer was connected to the modem and was downloading for the entire 50 minutes.Semen analysis was done for each specimen and comparisons between parameters of the two groups were done by using Kolmogorov-Smirnov study and a paired t-test.

RESULTS: Mean percentage of sperm with class A and B motility were not significantly different in two groups (p = 0.22 and 0.54, respectively). In class C, it was significantly lower in the exposed group (p = 0.046), while in class D it was significantly higher (p = 0.022). Velocity curvilinear, velocity straight line, velocity average path, mean angular displacement, lateral displacement and beat cross frequency were significantly higher in the unexposed group. The limitation was the in vitro design.

CONCLUSIONS: Electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems cause a significant decrease in sperm motility and velocity, especially in non-progressive motile sperms. Other parameters of semen analysis did not change significantly.EMWs, which are used in communications worldwide, are a suspected cause of male infertility. Many studies evaluated the effects of cell phones and wi-fi on fertility. To our knowledge, no study has yet been done to show the effects of EMWs emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems on fertility.Our study revealed a significant decrease in the quality of human semen after exposure to EMWs emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems.



Electromagnetic fields in neonatal incubators: the reasons for an alert

Bellieni CV, Nardi V, Buonocore G, Di Fabio S, Pinto I, Verrotti A. Electromagnetic fields in neonatal incubators: the reasons for an alert. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 Oct 8:1-11. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1390559.


BACKGROUND: Neonatal incubators are important tools for sick newborns in the first few days of life. Nevertheless, their electric engine, often very close to the newborn's body, emits electromagnetic fields (EMF) to which newborns are exposed. Aim of this paper is to review the available literature on EMF exposure in incubators, and the effects of such exposures on newborns that have been investigated.

METHODS: We carried out a systematic review of studies about EMF emissions produced by incubators, using Medline and Embase databases from 1993 to 2017.

RESULTS: We retrieved 15 papers that described the EMF exposure in incubators and their biological effects on babies. EMF levels in incubators appear to be between 2 and 100 mG, depending on the distance of the mattress from the electric engine. In some cases they exceed this range. These values interfere with melatonin production or with vagal tone. Even caregivers are exposed to high EMF, above 200 mG, when working at close contact with the incubators.

CONCLUSION: EMF have been described as potentially hazardous for human health, and values reported in this review are an alert to prevent babies' and caregivers' exposure when close to the incubators. A precautionary approach should be adopted in future incubator design, to prevent high exposures of newborns in incubators and of caregivers as well.



Cellphone electromagnetic radiation damages the testicular ultrastructure of male rats

Gao XH, Hu HR, Ma X2, Chen J, Zhang GH. [Cellphone electromagnetic radiation damages the testicular ultrastructure of male rats]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2016 Jun;22(6):491-495.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cellphone electromagnetic radiation (CER) on the testicular ultrastructure and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in male rats.atability, feasibility, applicability, and controllability in the construction of experimental animal models, we compared the major anatomic features of the penis of 20 adult beagle dogs with those of 10 adult men. Using microsurgical techniques, we performed cross-transplantation of the penis in the 20 (10 pairs) beagle dogs and observed the survival rate of the transplanted penises by FK506+MMF+MP immune induction. We compared the relevant indexes with those of the 10 cases of microsurgical replantation of the amputated penis.

METHODS: Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a 2 h CER, a 4 h CER, and a normal control group, the former two groups exposed to 30 days of 900 MHz CER for 2 and 4 hours a day, respectively, while the latter left untreated. Then the changes in the ultrastructure of the testis tissue were observed under the transmission electron microscope and the apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells was determined by TUNEL.

RESULTS: Compared with the normal controls, the rats of the 2 h CER group showed swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, increased cell intervals, apparent vacuoles and medullization in some mitochondria, and increased apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, mainly the apoptosis of primary spermatocytes (P<0.05 ). In comparison with the 2 h CER group, the animals of the 4 h CER group exhibited swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, more separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, wider cell intervals, incomplete membrane of spermatogonial cells, fragments of cytoplasm, nuclear pyknosis and notch, slight dilation of perinuclear space, abnormalities of intracellular mitochondria with vacuoles, fuzzy structure, and fusion or disappearance of some cristae, and increased damage of mitochondria and apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, including the apoptosis of spermatogonial cells, primary spermatocytes, and secondary spermatocytes (P<0.05 ).

CONCLUSIONS: CER can damage the testicular ultrastructure and increase the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells of the male rat in a time-dependent manner, and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells may be associated with the damage to mitochondria.



Cardiovascular disease: Time to identify emerging environmental risk factors

Bandara P, Weller S. Cardiovascular disease: Time to identify emerging environmental risk factors. Eur J Prev Cardio. October 3, 2017.

No Abstract


In our latest review, 242 RF-EMR studies that investigated experimental endpoints related to oxidative stress (OS)16 were identified. A staggering 216 (89%) of them found significant effects related to OS, similar to a previous review.17 These are being further analysed following presentation at the recent Australasian Radiation Protection Society conference.18 Mostly in-vivo animal studies and in-vitro studies have demonstrated increased markers of endogenous OS and/or affected antioxidant levels in different tissue/cell types upon exposure to RF-EMR. Some studies have further demonstrated amelioration of RF-induced OS upon treatment with various antioxidants. Limited human studies at this stage complement these studies demonstrating OS and/or reduced antioxidant status upon acute radiofrequency exposure under experimental settings,19 in mobile phone users20 and residents near mobile phone base stations.21 Renowned physical scientists have recently presented experimental evidence and a theoretical explanation on how low-intensity RF-EMR can generate OS .22

OS is known to be implicated in CVD 23,24 and therefore RF-EMR, a new ubiquitous environmental exposure, may contribute to CVD by maintaining chronic OS, and thereby causing oxidative damage to cellular constituents and altering signal transduction pathways.

Although a few western countries have recently taken steps to reduce public exposure to RF-EMR, particularly of children, such as discouraging the use of wireless devices by children and banning/restricting WiFi in schools, 38,39 there is largely inaction at this stage. Intriguingly, a professor in public health at the University of California recently went to court and accessed the cell phone safety ‘fact sheet’ (on health risks with instructions to reduce exposure) prepared by the Californian Department of Public Health.40 It is reported that this document, originally prepared in 2009 and revised 27 times up to 2014, was abandoned due to influences from vested interests. Meanwhile in France, a physician took legal action to access data from government testing of mobile phones 41 revealing that most phones would not even pass the entirely thermally based (tissue heating) current exposure standards if held directly against the body, such as in a garment pocket.

It is clearly time to investigate the potential role of RF-EMR exposure from common wireless device use on CVD. Noting that existing research findings are influenced by the funding source, 42 fresh directives are necessary for objective high quality research to expand current primary and secondary prevention strategies. 43



Nonlinearity, coherence and complexity: Biophysical aspects related to health and disease

Foletti A, Brizhik L. Nonlinearity, coherence and complexity: Biophysical aspects related to health and disease. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Published online 22 Sep 2017.


Biological organisms are complex open dissipative systems whose dynamical stability is sustained due to the exchange of matter, energy and information. Dynamical stability occurs through a number of mechanisms that sustain efficient adaptive dynamics. Such properties of living matter can be the consequence of a self-consistent state of matter and electromagnetic field (EMF). Based on the soliton model of charge transport in redox processes, we describe a possible mechanism of the origin of endogenous EMF and coherence. Solitons are formed in polypeptides due to electron–lattice interaction. Solitons experience periodical potential barrier, as a result of which their velocity oscillates in time, and, hence, they emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Under the effect of such radiation from all other solitons, the synchronization of their dynamics takes place, which significantly increases the intensity of the general EMF. The complex structure of biological molecules, such as helical structure, is not only important for “structure-function” relations, but also the source of the stability of biophysical processes, e.g. effectiveness of energy and charge transport on macroscopic distances. Such a complex structure also provides the framework for the spatiotemporal structure of the endogenous EMF. The highly hierarchical organization of living organisms is a manifestation of their complexity, even at the level of simple unicellular organisms. This complexity increases the dynamical stability of open systems and enhances the possibility of information storage and processing. Our findings provide a qualitative overview of a possible biophysical mechanism that supports health and disease adaptive dynamics.



Simplified Assessment Method for Population RF Exposure Induced by a 4G Network

Huang Y, Wiart J. Simplified Assessment Method for Population RF Exposure Induced by a 4G Network. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. PP(99). 18 Sep 2017. DOI:10.1109/JERM.2017.2751751.


This article presents a simplified method, based on surrogate modeling, to evaluate the day-to-day global population exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) induced by a 4G network, from both uplink and downlink radio emissions in a typical urban city. The uncertainties of 4G-induced RF-EMF exposure of an entire population were characterized for the first time taking into account the variability linked to urban propagation environment, information and communication technology usage, EMF respectively from personal wireless devices and Evolved Node B (eNB), as well as uplink throughput. In addition, the study focuses on a sensitivity analysis in order to assess the influence of these parameters on RF-EMF exposure. Globally, results show that the 4G-induced RF-EMF exposure follows a Generalized Extreme Value distribution with an average value of 1.19×10 W/kg. Moreover, authors show that, contrary to what have been observed in the 3G-induced RF-EMF exposure, that is, the exposure is dominated by uplink radio emissions, results have highlighted the importance of received power density from eNB to the issue of 4G-induced RF-EMF exposure. In 4G, the uplink exposure from mobiles accounts for only 25% of global exposure, resulting from the high speed of uplink throughput.



Time-averaged Realistic Maximum Power Levels for Assessment of RF Exposure for 5G Radio Base Stations

Thors B, Furuskär A, Colombi D, Törnevik C. Time-averaged Realistic Maximum Power Levels for the Assessment of Radio Frequency Exposure for 5G Radio Base Stations using Massive MIMO. IEEE Access. PP(99), 18 Sep 2017.


In this paper a model for time-averaged realistic maximum power levels for the assessment of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure for the fifth generation (5G) radio base stations (RBS) employing massive MIMO is presented. The model is based on a statistical approach and developed to provide a realistic conservative RF exposure assessment for a significant proportion of all possible downlink exposure scenarios (95th percentile) in-line with requirements in a recently developed International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard for RF EMF exposure assessments of radio base stations (RBS). Factors such as RBS utilization, time-division duplex (TDD), scheduling time, and spatial distribution of users within a cell are considered. The model is presented in terms of a closed-form equation. For an example scenario corresponding to an expected 5G RBS product, the largest realistic maximum power level was found to be less than 15% of the corresponding theoretical maximum. For far-field exposure scenarios, this corresponds to a reduction in RF EMF limit compliance distance with a factor of about 2.6. Results are given for antenna arrays of different sizes and for scenarios with beamforming in both azimuth and elevation.



In this paper, a theoretical model was presented to estimate the time-averaged realistic maximum power levels for the assessment of RF EMF exposure for 5G Radio Base Stations using Massive MIMO. The model was based on realistic conservative assumptions of a 5G mobile communication system and made use of a statistical approach to distribute the transmitted energy within the cell to obtain results that may be used in context with the ‘actual maximum exposure conditions’ in the international RF EMF exposure assessment standard for radio base stations IEC 62232:2017.

A key parameter of the model is how the users are assumed to be distributed within the cell. For all UDS considered, the time-averaged realistic maximum power levels was found to be significantly below the theoretical maximum. Even for very large degrees of system utilization, the time-averaged realistic maximum was found to take values between 7% - 22% of the theoretical maximum. This translates to reduced compliance distances and may be used to facilitate installation of 5G RBS products. The obtained results provide valuable input to standardization of RF EMF exposure assessments in the vicinity of RBS.


Magnetic field exposure to wireless charging stations for mobile phones

Fröhlich, J., Zahner, M. and Dürrenberger, G. (2017), Magnetic field exposure to wireless charging stations for mobile phones. Bioelectromagnetics. doi:10.1002/bem.22087

No Abstract


This brief communication presents measurement and simulation data about magnetic field levels of, and human exposure to, wireless charging devices for smart phones, respectively. Most transmitters for inductive charging operate within a frequency window from 110 up to 205 kHz. The highest instantaneous field levels can be measured in stand-by mode. Peak and rms values amount to a few 100 µT, which is above the reference level. However, simulation results showed that the basic restrictions (defined in terms of electric field levels, V/m, in tissue and power absorption, specific absorption rate [SAR]), were met. From a regulatory point of view, inductive charging systems for small electronic devices like cell phones comply with safety standards, but worst-case induced electrical fields may come close to basic restrictions. Therefore, maximum currents for all specific implementations have to be restricted.

Currently, inductive charging is the only commercialized wireless charging technology. In the near future, devices for resonant power transfer will be available, too. Two standards for inductive charging exist: Qi and AirFuel. Qi is dominating the market. Some key technical characteristics of the Qi inductive charging standard are given in Table 1.


The dosimetric characterization showed that inductive charging stations comply with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP and IEEE, albeit the incident magnetic flux densities exceed the reference values by factors of tens, roughly. For internal electric fields, the margin was below a factor of 10. For SAR, in contrast, the margin amounted to three orders of magnitude. The study (i) affirmed that checking basic restrictions in case of local exposures that exceed reference values is necessary; (ii) showed that exposure levels of current smartphone wireless charging systems may exploit ICNIRP basic restrictions on induced electric fields up to 30%, roughly, and are far from recommended maximum SAR levels; and (iii) indicated that increasing the allowed maximum power for charging systems (as already outlined in the standard) has to be carefully evaluated regarding instantaneous values of induced electric fields.



Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum iron parameters in rats

Çetkin M, Demirel C, Kızılkan N, Aksoy N, Erbağcı H. Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum iron parameters in rats.

Afr Health Sci. 2017 Mar;17(1):186-190. doi: 10.4314/ahs.v17i1.23.


BACKGROUND: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on different organs.

OBJECTIVES: It was aimed to investigate the effects of an EMF created by a mobile phone on serum iron level, ferritin, unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity within a rat experiment model.

METHODS: A total of 32 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the control, sham, mobile phone speech (2h/day) and stand by (12 h/day) groups. The speech and stand by groups were subjected to the EMF for a total of 10 weeks.

RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed between the serum iron and ferritin values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups than the control and sham groups (p>0.05). The unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron capacity values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups were significantly lower in comparison to the control group (p<0.01).

CONCLUSION:It was found that exposure to EMF created by mobile phones affected unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity negatively.

Open Access Paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5636244/


Electromagnetic fields with frequencies of 5, 60 and 120 Hz affect the cell cycle and viability of human fibroblast BJ in vitro

Koziorowska A, Romerowicz-Misielak M Filipek A, Koziorowski M. Electromagnetic fields with frequencies of 5, 60 and 120 Hz affect the cell cycle and viability of human fibroblast BJ in vitro. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017 Jul-Sep;31(3):725-730.


The impact of electromagnetic field (EMF) on humans has been described in numerous studies, but many questions are still unanswered. The aim of the experiment described in this study was to evaluate the effect of EMF on the viability of human fibroblast BJ in vitro and the percentage of cells in different phases of the cell cycle (G1/G0, S, G2/M) after 2 hours of exposure to sinusoidal continuous and pulsed EMFs with frequency of 5 Hz, 60 Hz and 120 Hz at a magnetic induction of 2,5 mT. The viability of BJ cells exposed to an EMF was estimated immediately after completion of exposure and after 24 hours. Metabolic activity of cells was assessed by MTT assay and compared to a control culture not exposed to EMFs. Cell cycle analysis was performed by BrdU incorporation. The analysis of the viability demonstrated significant differences in field efficiency, depending on its nature. Exposure of cells to pulse EMFs resulted in a decrease in their viability for each of the analyzed frequencies. Reduced viability was maintained for a further 24 hours after the end of exposure of cells to pulsed EMF. In the case of continuous field, reduced BJ cell viability was observed only at the highest applied frequency - 120Hz, and this effect maintained for the next 24 hours. Although there was no significant effect on cell viability (metabolic activity) of cells immediately after exposure to continuous EMF with a frequency of 5Hz, a significant increase was observed after 24 hours of incubation.



Activation of Signaling Cascades by Weak Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

Kapri-Pardes E, Hanoch T, Maik-Rachline G, Murbach M, Bounds PL, Kuster N, Seger R. Activation of Signaling Cascades by Weak Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017 Oct 16;43(4):1. doi: 10.1159/000481977.


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Results from recent studies suggest that extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) interfere with intracellular signaling pathways related to proliferative control. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), central signaling components that regulate essentially all stimulated cellular processes, include the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) that are extremely sensitive to extracellular cues. Anti-phospho-ERK antibodies serve as a readout for ERK1/2 activation and are able to detect minute changes in ERK stimulation. The objective of this study was to explore whether activation of ERK1/2 and other signaling cascades can be used as a readout for responses of a variety of cell types, both transformed and non-transformed, to ELF-MF.

METHODS: We applied ELF-MF at various field strengths and time periods to eight different cell types with an exposure system housed in a tissue culture incubator and followed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and Akt by western blotting.

RESULTS: We found that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is increased in response to ELF-MF. However, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is likely too low to induce ELF-MF-dependent proliferation or oncogenic transformation. The p38 MAPK was very slightly phosphorylated, but JNK or Akt were not. The effect on ERK1/2 was detected for exposures to ELF-MF strengths as low as 0.15 µT and was maximal at ∼10 µT. We also show that ERK1/2 phosphorylation is blocked by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium, indicating that the response to ELF-MF may be exerted via NADP oxidase similar to the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in response to microwave radiation.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results further indicate that cells are responsive to ELF-MF at field strengths much lower than previously suspected and that the effect may be mediated by NADP oxidase. However, the small increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation is probably insufficient to affect proliferation and oncogenic transformation. Therefore, the results cannot be regarded as proof of the involvement of ELF-MF in cancer in general or childhood leukemia in particular.



Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment

Gurfinkel YI, Vasin AL, Pishchalnikov RY, Sarimov RM, Sasonko ML, Matveeva TA. Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment. Int J Biometeorol. 2017 Oct 13. doi: 10.1007/s00484-017-1460-8.


The influence of the previously recorded geomagnetic storm (GS) on human cardiovascular system and microcirculation has been studied under laboratory conditions. Healthy volunteers in lying position were exposed under two artificially created conditions: quiet (Q) and storm (S). The Q regime playbacks a noise-free magnetic field (MF) which is closed to the natural geomagnetic conditions on Moscow's latitude. The S regime playbacks the initially recorded 6-h geomagnetic storm which is repeated four times sequentially. The cardiovascular response to the GS impact was assessed by measuring capillary blood velocity (CBV) and blood pressure (BP) and by the analysis of the 24-h ECG recording. A storm-to-quiet ratio for the cardio intervals (CI) and the heart rate variability (HRV) was introduced in order to reveal the average over group significant differences of HRV. An individual sensitivity to the GS was estimated using the autocorrelation function analysis of the high-frequency (HF) part of the CI spectrum. The autocorrelation analysis allowed for detection a group of subjects of study which autocorrelation functions (ACF) react differently in the Q and S regimes of exposure.



Recent Updates on EMR Safety

5G Wireless Technology: Major newspaper editorials on SB 649
Berkeley Cell Phone "Right to Know" Ordinance
Berkeley Cell Phone "Right to Know" Ordinance: Media Coverage
iPhone 8 Models: Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) or RF Exposure
Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality
Key Cell Phone Radiation Research Studies
Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: The Role of Cell Phones and Cordless Phones
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
Quotes from 21 Experts Regarding Electromagnetic Fields and Health
International Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields and Wireless Technology


Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
Website: http://www.saferemr.com

Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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