Raise awareness of environmental health issues in order to better protect our children and future generations.

EMF Studies

27 February 2018

Sixteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (23 February 2018)

Sixteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 23 February 2018

Announcement

National Toxicology Program Cell Phone Cancer Studies

The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences has recently released two draft technical reports about its mobile phone radiation cancer risk studies of rats and mice.

I encourage you to submit public comments by March 12, 2018 using the NTP submission form.
For more information about these studies, see my post: National Toxicology Program Finds Cell Phone Radiation Causes Cancer.

To review the NTP technical reports, supplemental materials, and public comments that have been submitted: http://bit.ly/NTPreports.

For information about attendance at the peer review meeting to be held March 26-28, the webcast of the meeting, and submission of comments in writing or in person: http://bit.ly/NTPmeeting.


Radio Frequency Fields

Genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields

Kocaman A, Altun G, Kaplan AA, Deniz ÖG, Yurt KK, Kaplan S. Genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields.
Environ Res. 2018 Feb 7;163:71-79. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.034.

Abstract

New technologies in electronics and communications are continually emerging. An increasing use of these electronic devices such as mobile phone, computer, wireless fidelity connectors or cellular towers is raising questions concerning whether they have an adverse effect on the body. Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) is frequently suggested to have adverse health effects on humans and other organisms. This idea has been reported in many studies. In contrast, the therapeutic effects of EMF on different organs have also been reported. Research findings are inconsistent. This has given rise to very profound discrepancies. The duration and frequency of mobile phone calls and the association observed with various health effects has raised serious concerns due to the frequency with which these devices are used and the way they are held close to the head. The present review assesses the results of in vitro, in vivo, experimental, and epidemiological studies. The purpose of the study is to assess data concerning the carcinogenic and genotoxic effects of non-ionizing EMF. The major genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of EMF, divided into subsections as low frequency effects and radiofrequency effects, were reviewed. The inconsistent results between similar studies and the same research groups have made it very difficult to make any comprehensive interpretation. However, evaluation of current studies suggests that EMF may represent a serious source of concern and may be hazardous to living organisms.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29427953

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Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications?

Di Ciaula A. Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications? Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Feb 2. pii: S1438-4639(17) 30814-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.011.

Highlights

• RF-EMF exposure is rising and health effects of are still under investigation.
• Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested.
• 5G networks could have health effects and will use MMW, still scarcely explored.
• Adequate knowledge of RF-EMF biological effects is also needed in clinical practice.
• Underrating the problem could lead to a further rise in noncommunicable diseases.

Abstract

The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402696

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RF radiation-related cancer: assessing causation in the occupational/military setting

Peleg M, Nativ O, Richter ED. Radio frequency radiation-related cancer: assessing causation in the occupational/military setting.
Environ Res. 2018 Feb 9;163:123-133. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.003.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM: We reexamine whether radio frequency radiation (RFR) in the occupational and military settings is a human carcinogen.

METHODS: We extended an analysis of an already-reported case series of patients with cancer previously exposed to whole-body prolonged RFR, mainly from communication equipment and radar. We focused on hematolymphatic (HL) cancers. We used analysis by percentage frequency (PF) of a cancer type, which is the proportion of a specific cancer type relative to the total number of cancer cases. We also examined and analyzed the published data on three other cohort studies from similar military settings from different countries.

RESULTS: The PF of HL cancers in the case series was very high, at 40% with only 23% expected for the series age and gender profile, confidence interval CI95%: 26-56%, p<0.01, 19 out of 47 patients had HL cancers. We also found high PF for multiple primaries. As for the three other cohort studies: In the Polish military sector, the PF of HL cancers was 36% in the exposed population as compared to 12% in the unexposed population, p<0.001. In a small group of employees exposed to RFR in Israeli defense industry, the PF of HL cancers was 60% versus 17% expected for the group age and gender profile, p<0.05. In Belgian radar battalions the HL PF was 8.3% versus 1.4% in the control battalions as shown in a causes of deaths study and HL cancer mortality rate ratio was 7.2 and statistically significant. Similar findings were reported on radio amateurs and Korean war technicians. Elevated risk ratios were previously reported in most of the above studies.

CONCLUSIONS: The consistent association of RFR and highly elevated HL cancer risk in the four groups spread over three countries, operating different RFR equipment types and analyzed by different research protocols, suggests a cause-effect relationship between RFR and HL cancers in military/occupational settings. While complete measurements of RFR exposures were not available and rough exposure assessments from patients interviews and from partial exposure data were used instead, we have demonstrated increased HL cancers in occupational groups with relatively high RFR exposures. Our findings, combined with other studies, indicate that exposures incurred in the military settings evaluated here significantly increased the risk of HL cancers. Accordingly, the RFR military exposures in these occupations should be substantially reduced and further efforts should be undertaken to monitor and measure those exposures and to follow cohorts exposed to RFR for cancers and other health effects. Overall, the epidemiological studies on excess risk for HL and other cancers together with brain tumors in cellphone users and experimental studies on RFR and carcinogenicity make a coherent case for a cause-effect relationship and classifying RFR exposure as a human carcinogen (IARC group 1).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29433020

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Are Exposures to Multiple Frequencies the Key to Future Radiofrequency Research?

Sienkiewicz Z, Calderón C, Broom KA, Addison D, Gavard A, Lundberg L, Maslanyj M. Are Exposures to Multiple Frequencies the Key to Future Radiofrequency Research? Front Public Health. 2017 Dec 8;5:328. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00328.

Abstract

There is an extensive literature investigating possible effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields associated with mobile phone technologies. This has not identified any public health risks with any degree of certainty. Some epidemiological studies have observed associations between heavy users of mobile phones and some types of cancer, but animal studies do not support this association, although a few studies have reported increased tumor yields. However, there is a crucial difference between epidemiology studies and laboratory work in terms of signals investigated: most people are exposed to a complex mixture of frequencies and signals at varying intensities, whereas the majority of animal studies have been performed using a single frequency or intensity. Whether this might explain the differences in outcome will be discussed, and whether there is a need for additional laboratory investigations that reproduce more accurately realistic exposure conditions will be considered.

Open Access Paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5727023/

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On the effects of glasses on the SAR in human head resulting from wireless eyewear devices at phone call state

Lan JQ, Liang X, Hong T, Du GH. On the effects of glasses on the SAR in human head resulting from wireless eyewear devices at phone call state. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2018 Feb 8. pii: S0079-6107(17)30082-2. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2018.02.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

This paper evaluates the effects of glasses on the specific absorption rates (SAR) in the human head resulting from wireless eyewear device at phone call state. We mainly concentrate on the SAR in the eyes since their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). We find wearing glasses obviously alters the distribution and magnitude of the SAR. The maximal SAR in the ocular tissues with glasses is even 6 times more than that without glasses. Wearing glasses also induce the new hotspot in the eyes which may cause the biggest SAR increment in the ocular tissues. Moreover, calculated results indicate that the maximal SAR is sensitive to the size of glasses and radiation frequency. Because of this, we believe wearing glasses may possibly increase the risk of health hazard to eyes of wireless eyewear device user. These calculated results could be a valuable reference for the glasses designer to reduce the SAR in the eyes.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29428220

Conclusions

Based on the calculated results, we find wearing glasses obviously alters the distribution and magnitude of SAR. The maximal SAR in the ocular tissues with glasses is even 6 times more than that without glasses. Wearing glasses also could induce the new hotspot in the eyeballs which may cause the biggest SAR increment in the ocular tissues. Moreover, calculated results indicate that the maximal SAR is sensitive to the size of glasses and radiation frequency. Therefore, we believe wearing glasses may possibly increase the risk of health hazard to human eyes. In order to decrease the SAR in the ocular tissues, people should choose the adaptive glasses according to the radiation frequency. If possible, we advise people to take off their glasses when they use the eyewear device. These calculated results could be a valuable reference for the glasses designer to reduce the SAR in the eyes. However, due to the limited research conditions, the experiment is not included. So conclusions, in this paper, are just indicative but not definitive.

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Exposure to Mobile Phone-Emitted EMF and Human Attention: No Evidence of a Causal Relationship: Mini Review

Curcio G. Exposure to Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields and Human Attention: No Evidence of a Causal Relationship. Front. Public Health, 23 February 2018.

No Abstract

Concluding Remarks

On the basis of reviewed literature, we can reasonably conclude that there is no evidence of a negative influence of mobile phone emitted EMFs on different aspects of human attention. As pointed out in Discussion, published literature is very heterogeneous with respect to methodology, dosimetry, or statistical analyses, and thus a conclusive generalization to everyday life is still very difficult. For these reasons, further research is needed, particularly on real-working settings and environments.

Open Access Paper: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00042/full

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A Multi-Band Body-Worn Distributed RF Exposure Meter: Design, On-Body Calibration and Study of Body Morphology
Aminzadeh R, Thielens A, Agneessens S, Van Torre P, Van den Bossche M, Dongus S, Eeftens M, Huss A, Vermeulen R, de Seze R, Mazet P, Cardis E, Rogier H, Röösli M, Martens L Wout J. A Multi-Band Body-Worn Distributed Radio-Frequency Exposure Meter: Design, On-Body Calibration and Study of Body Morphology. Sensors. 18(1). Jan 2018.

Abstract

A multi-band Body-Worn Distributed exposure Meter (BWDM) calibrated for simultaneous measurement of the incident power density in 11 telecommunication frequency bands, is proposed. The BDWM consists of 22 textile antennas integrated in a garment and is calibrated on six human subjects in an anechoic chamber to assess its measurement uncertainty in terms of 68% confidence interval of the on-body antenna aperture. It is shown that by using multiple antennas in each frequency band, the uncertainty of the BWDM is 22 dB improved with respect to single nodes on the front and back of the torso and variations are decreased to maximum 8.8 dB. Moreover, deploying single antennas for different body morphologies results in a variation up to 9.3 dB, which is reduced to 3.6 dB using multiple antennas for six subjects with various body mass index values. The designed BWDM, has an improved uncertainty of up to 9.6 dB in comparison to commercially available personal exposure meters calibrated on body. As an application, an average incident power density in the range of 26.7–90.8 μW·m−2 is measured in Ghent, Belgium. The measurements show that commercial personal exposure meters underestimate the actual exposure by a factor of up to 20.6.

Excerpt

Two commercially available PEMs are used in this study: EME Spy 200 (MVG, Brest, France) and ExpoM-RF (Fields at Work GmbH, Zürich, Switzerland). Eleven frequency bands are studied in this paper ...

For the BWDM, the mean measured power densities are in the range of 26.7 μW/m2 (800-DL) to 90.8 μW/m2 (900 DL). The large standard deviation is due to the city environment where several buildings with different heights are present. For the EME Spy 200, the mean power density ranges from 4.41 μW/m2 (1800-DL) to 60.1 μW/m2 (900-DL). ExpoM-RF registered mean power densities in the range of 14.53 μW/m2 (1800-DL) to 151.5 μW/m2 (900-DL). All the three devices measured the maximum mean power density for 900-DL band (2G). For the BWDM, the median Sinc is in the range of 3.21 μW/m2 (800-DL) to 29 μW/m2 for 2100-DL. Both PEMs registered the minimum p50 of Sinc for 1800-DL (EME Spy 200: 0.59 μW/m2, ExpoM-RF: 1.62 μW/m2) and the maximum median Sinc for 900-DL (EME Spy 200: 12.26 μW/m2, ExpoM-RF: 34.77 μW/m2).

Conclusions

For the first time, a multi-band body-worn distributed-exposure meter (BWDM) is proposed for simultaneous on-body measurements of the incident power density in 11 telecommunication bands. The BWDM is designed and calibrated on a male human subject, in an anechoic chamber. The optimized location of 22 nodes covering 11 frequency bands is determined on the front and on the back of the torso. The optimized BWDM is also calibrated on five more subjects in order to study the effect of human body morphology on the measurement uncertainty of the designed BWDM. The uncertainty is quantified as the 68% confidence interval of the on-body antenna aperture obtained during calibrations. It is shown that using multiple antennas improved the uncertainty up to 22 dB with respect to single nodes for all subjects in all frequency bands. We also demonstrated that, using single antennas, the variation on CI68 for the six people in this study was about 9.3 dB. This value reduced to the range of 1.2 to 3.6 dB for all the subjects, which is 5.7 dB improvement. Except for 1800-DL (3.6 dB) the maximum variation on the CI68 of subjects of this study is limited to below 2 dB. The designed BWDM has an improved CI68 of 9.6 dB compared to CI68 of commercially available PEMs calibrated on body. Using the proposed BWDM and two PEMs, fields along an outdoor route are measured in Ghent, Belgium including 800, 900, 1800 and 2100 MHz downlink bands. The BWDM measured a mean power density in the range of 26.7 to 90.8 μW/m2, which are below the issued reference levels by ICNIRP. The results show that commercial PEMs underestimate the actual incident power densities by a factor of 1.6 to 20.6. Moreover, the measured exposure to 2G and 3G signals are 3.8 to 9 times higher than the 4G signals. The study of the subject’s posture and application of SAR measurement will be part of the future work.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322569489_A_Multi-Band_Body-Worn_Distributed_Radio-Frequency_Exposure_Meter_Design_On-Body_Calibration_and_Study_of_Body_Morphology

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Representativeness and repeatability of microenvironmental personal and head exposures to RF-EMF

Thielens A, Van den Bossche M, Brzozek C, Bhatt CR, Abramson MJ, Benke G, Martens L, Joseph W. Representativeness and repeatability of microenvironmental personal and head exposures to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. Environ Res. 2018 Apr;162:81-96. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.12.017.

Abstract

The aims of this study were to: i) investigate the repeatability and representativeness of personal radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure measurements, across different microenvironments, ii) perform simultaneous evaluations of personal RF-EMF exposures for the whole body and the head, iii) validate the data obtained with a head-worn personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) against those obtained with an on-body worn personal exposimeter (PEM). Data on personal and head RF-EMF exposures were collected by performing measurements across 15 microenvironments in Melbourne, Australia. A body-worn PEM and a head-worn PDE were used for measuring body and head exposures, respectively. The summary statistics obtained for total RF-EMF exposure showed a high representativeness (r2 > 0.66 for two paths in the same area) and a high repeatability over time (r2 > 0.87 for repetitions of the same path). The median head exposure in the 900MHz downlink band ranged between 0.06V/m and 0.31V/m. The results obtained during simultaneous measurements using the two devices showed high correlations (0.42 < r2 < 0.94). The highest mean total RF-EMF exposure was measured in Melbourne's central business district (0.89V/m), whereas the lowest mean total exposure was measured in a suburban residential area (0.05V/m). This study shows that personal RF-EMF microenvironmental measurements in multiple microenvironments have high representativeness and repeatability over time. The personal RF-EMF exposure levels (i.e. body and head exposures) demonstrated moderate to high correlations.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29289859

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Effects of time delays on biological feedback systems and electromagnetic field exposures

Barnes F, Kandala S. Effects of time delays on biological feedback systems and electromagnetic field exposures. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Feb 19. doi: 10.1002/bem.22114.

No Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29457641

Excerpts

Biological systems contain a large number of signaling pathway and amplifying systems. Often these signaling systems operate in parallel and include both feedback and feed forward signals. An extensive review of how feedback loops shape cellular signals in space and time is presented by Brandman and Meyer [2008]. There are over 3,000 signaling proteins and over 15 s messengers that lead to hundreds of cell-specific signaling systems. These multiple feedback loops lead to a wide variety of responses including oscillations, bi-stability, and system stabilization. The multiple feedback loops often make it hard to separate cause and effect.

Changes in concentrations of ROS molecules have been shown to have a wide range of both positive and negative effects on biological systems [Halliwell and Gutteridge, 2015]. Early works on the exposures of biological systems to microwaves show that even when the biological system was held at constant temperatures, there were changes in membrane resistance that differed from the first exposures to the second, and there was a time delay in the response [Arber and Lin, 1985a,b]. More recent works show that magnetic fields have been shown to modify ROS concentrations [Georgiou, 2010; Castello et al., 2014; Usselman et al., 2014, 2016].

We can expect signals such as modulated sine waves or pulses at different repetition rates containing more than one frequency to modify more than one biological process.

Overall, we know that there are many feedback and repair processes in biological systems. These feedback processes occur with time delays following a stimulus, and thus we can expect that the timing of a periodic stimulus can either lead to an amplified or attenuated response. Additionally, we can expect the responses of biological systems to be frequency-dependent. With knowledge of time constants for various biological and medical responses, we may be able to signal the systems to increase or decrease such things as cell growth rates or immune responses.

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RF EMR exposure effects on amygdala morphology, place preference behavior and brain caspase-3 activity in rats
Narayanan, SN, Mohapatra, N, John, P, Suresh Kumar, NKR,. Nayak, SB, Gopalakrishna Bhat, P. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure effects on amygdala morphology, place preference behavior and brain caspase-3 activity in rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 58:220-229. 2018.

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in amygdala morphology and emotional behaviors, upon exposure to chronic RF-EMR in adolescent rats. Four weeks old male albino Wistar rats were exposed to 900 MHz (power density:146.60 μW/cm2) from a mobile phone in silent-mode for 28 days. Amygdala morphology was studied using cresyl violet, TUNEL and Golgi-Cox staining. Place preference behavior was studied using light/dark chamber test and following this brain caspase-3 activity was determined. Number of healthy neurons was decreased in the basolateral amygdala and cortical amygdala but not in the central amygdala after RF-EMR exposure. It also induced apoptosis in the amygdala. RF-EMR exposure altered dendritic arborization pattern in basolateral amygdala but not in the central amygdala. Altered place preference and hyperactivity-like behavior was evident after RF-EMR exposure, but brain caspase-3 activity did not change. RF-EMR exposure perturbed normal cellular architecture of amygdala and this was associated with altered place preference.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2018.01.009

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Cell phone exposure induces apoptosis, mitochondrial oxidative stress & TRPV1 channel activation in hippocampus of rats

Ertilav K, Uslusoy F, Ataizi S, Nazıroğlu M. Long term exposure to cell phone frequencies (900 and 1800 MHz) induces apoptosis, mitochondrial oxidative stress and TRPV1 channel activation in the hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats. Metab Brain Dis. 2018 Jan 13. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0180-4.

Abstract

Mobile phone providers use electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with frequencies ranging from 900 to 1800 MHz. The increasing use of mobile phones has been accompanied by several potentially pathological consequences, such as neurological diseases related to hippocampal (HIPPON) and dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN). The TRPV1 channel is activated different stimuli, including CapN, high temperature and oxidative stress. We investigated the contribution TRPV1 to mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis in HIPPON and DRGN following long term exposure to 900 and 1800 MHz in a rat model. Twenty-four adult rats were equally divided into the following groups: (1) control, (2) 900 MHz, and (3) 1800 MHz exposure. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/ 5 days of the week during the one year. The 900 and 1800 MHz EMR exposure induced increases in TRPV1 currents, intracellular free calcium influx (Ca2+), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization (JC-1), apoptosis, and caspase 3 and 9 activities in the HIPPON and DRGN. These deleterious processes were further increased in the 1800 MHz experimental group compared to the 900 MHz exposure group. In conclusion, mitochondrial oxidative stress, programmed cell death and Ca2+ entry pathway through TRPV1 activation in the HIPPON and DRGN of rats were increased in the rat model following exposure to 900 and 1800 MHz cell frequencies. Our results suggest that exposure to 900 and 1800 MHz EMR may induce a dose-associated, TRPV1-mediated stress response.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29332300

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RF EMR exposure effects on amygdala morphology, place preference behavior and brain caspase-3 activity in rats

Narayanan SN, Mohapatra N, John P, Kumar NKRS, Nayak SB, Bhat PG. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure effects on amygdala morphology, place preference behavior and brain caspase-3 activity in rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Available online 31 January 2018.

Highlights

• Chronic 900 MHz exposure perturbed cellular architecture of rat amygdala.
• Number of healthy neurons decreased in basolateral, cortical nuclei but not in central nuclei.
• Dendritic arborization of basolateral neurons was found to be reduced.
• This was associated with altered place preference behavior.
• Brain caspase-3 was not found to be altered after chronic radiation exposure.

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in amygdala morphology and emotional behaviors, upon exposure to chronic RFEMR in adolescent rats. Four weeks old male albino Wistar rats were exposed to 900 MHz (power density:146.60 μW/cm2) from a mobile phone in silent-mode for 28 days. Amygdala morphology was studied using cresyl violet, TUNEL and Golgi-Cox staining. Place preference behavior was studied using light/dark chamber test and following this brain caspase-3 activity was determined. Number of healthy neurons was decreased in the basolateral amygdala and cortical amygdala but not in the central amygdala after RF-EMR exposure. It also induced apoptosis in the amygdala. RF-EMR exposure altered dendritic arborization pattern in basolateral amygdala but not in the central amygdala. Altered place preference and hyperactivity-like behavior was evident after RF-EMR exposure, but brain caspase-3 activity did not change. EMR exposure perturbed architecture of amygdala and this was associated with altered place preference.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1382668918300164

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Evaluation of oxidative injury in sciatic nerves of male rats exposed to continuous 900-MHz EMF throughout adolescence
Kerimoğlu G, Güney C, Ersöz Ş, Odacı E. A histopathological and biochemical evaluation of oxidative injury in the sciatic nerves of male rats exposed to a continuous 900-megahertz electromagnetic field throughout all periods of adolescence. J Chem Neuroanat. 2018 Jan 10. pii: S0891-0618(17)30212-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2018.01.001.

Abstract

The effects on human health of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phones, used by approximately 7 billion people worldwide, have become an important subject for scientific research. Studies have suggested that the EMF emitted by mobile phones can cause oxidative stress in different tissues and age groups. Young people in adolescence, a time period when risky behaviors and dependences increase, use mobile phones more than adults. The EMF emitted by mobile phones, which are generally carried in the pocket or in bags when not in use, will very probably affect the sciatic nerve. No previous study has investigated the effect of mobile phone use in adolescence on peripheral nerve. This study was planned accordingly. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats aged 21 days were divided equally into control (CGr), Sham (SGr) and EMF (EMFGr) groups. No procedure was performed on CGr rats. EMFGr were exposed to the effect of a 900-megahertz (MHz) EMF for 1 h at the same time every day between postnatal days 21-59 (the entire adolescent period) inside a cage in the EMF apparatus. SGr rats were placed inside the cage for 1 h every day without being exposed to EMF. All rats were sacrificed at the end of the study period, and 1 cm sections of sciatic nerve were extracted. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione, catalase (CAT) superoxide dismutase (SOD) values were investigated biochemically in half of the right sciatic nerve tissues. The other halves of the nerve tissues were subjected to routine histopathological tissue procedures, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome. Histopathological evaluation of slides stained with Masson's trichrome and H&E revealed a normal appearance in Schwann cells and axons in all groups. However, there was marked thickening in the epineurium of sciatic nerves from EMFGr rats. MDA, SOD and CAT levels were higher in EMFGr than in CGr and SGr at biochemical analyses. Apoptotıc index (AI) analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of TUNEL (+) cells when EMFGr was compared with CGr and SGr. In conclusion, our study results suggest that continuous exposure to a 900-MHz EMF for 1 h throughout adolescence can cause oxidative injury and thickening in the epineurium in the sciatic nerve in male rats.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29331319

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1950 MHz RF EMR Inhibits Testosterone Secretion of Mouse Leydig Cells

Lin YY, Wu T, Liu JY, Gao P, Li KC, Guo QY, Yuan M, Lang HY, Zeng LH, Guo GZ. 1950 MHz Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Inhibits Testosterone Secretion of Mouse Leydig Cells. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Dec 23;15(1). pii: E17. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15010017.

Abstract

More studies that are focused on the bioeffects of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation that is generated from the communication devices, but there were few reports with confirmed results about the bioeffects of RF radiation on reproductive cells. To explore the effects of 1950 MHz RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on mouse Leydig (TM3) cells. TM3 cells were irradiated or sham-irradiated continuously for 24 h by the specific absorption rate (SAR) 3 W/kg radiation. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after irradiation, cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, cell cycle distribution, percentage of apoptosis, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined by flow cytometry, Testosterone level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450scc in TM3 cells was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After being irradiated for 24 h, cell proliferation obviously decreased and cell cycle distribution, secretion capacity of Testosterone, and P450scc mRNA level were reduced. While cell apoptosis, ROS, and StAR mRNA level did not change significantly. The current results indicated that 24 h of exposure at 1950 MHz 3 W/kg radiation could cause some adverse effects on TM3 cells proliferation and Testosterone secretion, further studies about the biological effects in the reproductive system that are induced by RF radiation are also needed.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29295490

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Extremely Low Frequency Fields

Occupational exposure to ELF magnetic fields and risk of ALS: systematic review and meta-analysis
Huss A, Peters S, Vermeulen R. Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of ALS: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bioelectromagnetics. doi:10.1002/bem.22104. Published online Jan 19, 2018.

Abstract

We performed a meta-analysis to examine associations of occupational exposure to extremely-low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Epidemiologic studies were identified in EMBASE and MEDLINE, in reference lists and a specialist database. We included studies that reported risk estimates of ALS in association with occupational ELF-MF exposure. Summary relative risks (RR) or odds ratios (OR) were obtained with random effect meta-analysis, and analyses were stratified by type of exposure assessment. This was done to evaluate whether observed heterogeneity between studies could be explained with differences in the way the exposure had been determined. We included 20 studies in our meta-analysis. Overall, studies reported a slightly increased risk of ALS in those exposed to higher levels of ELF-MF compared to lower levels with a summary RR (sRR) of 1.14 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.00–1.30) and for workers in electrical occupations (sRR 1.41, CI 1.05–1.92), but with large heterogeneity between studies (I2 > 70%). Self-reported exposure or occupations determined from death certificates did not show increased risks. Highest-longest types of exposure translated into increased risks of ALS if the studies had evaluated the whole occupational history, in contrast to evaluating only few points in time (e.g., from census records); sRR were 1.89 (CI 1.31–2.73, I2 0%) and 1.06 (CI 0.75–1.57, I2 76%), respectively. In this meta-analysis, we observed an increased risk of ALS in workers occupationally exposed to ELF-MF. Results of studies depended on the quality of the exposure assessment.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bem.22104/abstract

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Occupational exposure to ELF magnetic fields and risk of Alzheimer disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

Jalilian H, Teshnizi SH, Röösli M, Neghab M. Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and risk of Alzheimer disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurotoxicology. 2017 Dec 24. pii: S0161-813X(17)30239-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2017.12.005.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) occurs in many occupations such as welders, electric utility workers, train drivers and sewing machine operators. There is some evidence suggesting ELF-MF exposure to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study aims at systematically reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of AD amongst workers exposed to ELF-MF.

METHODS: Bibliographic databases were searched including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science in November 2017. Risk of bias was assessed in the all included studies. Pooled estimates were obtained using random-effects meta-analysis. In addition, sources of heterogeneity between studies and publication bias were explored.

RESULTS: In total, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results suggest an increased risk of AD (RR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.35, 1.96). Higher risk estimates were obtained from case-control studies (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.40, 2.32) than from cohort studies (RR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.87). A moderate to high heterogeneity (I2 = 61.0%) and indication for publication bias (Egger test: p <  0.001) were found.

CONCLUSION: The results suggested that occupational exposure to ELF-MF might increase the risk of AD. However, this suggestion should be interpreted with caution given the moderate to high heterogeneity and indication for publication bias.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29278690

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Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: http://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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