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EMF Studies

19 April 2018

Eighteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (18 April 2018)

Since August, 2016, Dr. Moscowitz has been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world who have subscribed to his email list. The collection of abstracts currently contains more than 350 papers. Due to numerous requests to post these abstracts, he has compiled the collection into a document which can be downloaded from his web site. [Our blog, "Towards Better Health" will continue to post the latest studies and keep them on our site for one year.]

For more information

Eighteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 18 April 2018

Recent News Stories

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. "How Big Wireless Made Us Think That Cell Phones Are Safe: A Special Investigation." THE NATION, March 29, 2018.
The disinformation campaign—and massive radiation increase—behind the 5G rollout.

Microwave News. “'Clear Evidence' of Cell Phone Cancer Risk, Say Leading Pathologists." April 9, 2018.
Why the peer review panel and NTP interpreted the same animal data differently.

Recent Papers

Radio Frequency Radiation

5G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications

Russell CL. 5G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Environmental Research. Available online 11 April 2018. in press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016


The popularity, widespread use and increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. On the horizon, a new generation of even shorter high frequency 5G wavelengths is being proposed to power the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT promises us convenient and easy lifestyles with a massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies are far less studied for human or environmental effects.

It is argued that the addition of this added high frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both physical and mental health perspectives.

Radiofrequency radiation (RF) is increasingly being recognized as a new form of environmental pollution. Like other common toxic exposures, the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) will be problematic if not impossible to sort out epidemiologically as there no longer remains an unexposed control group. This is especially important considering these effects are likely magnified by synergistic toxic exposures and other common health risk behaviors. Effects can also be non-linear. Because this is the first generation to have cradle-to-grave lifespan exposure to this level of man-made microwave (RF EMR) radiofrequencies, it will be years or decades before the true health consequences are known. Precaution in the roll out of this new technology is strongly indicated.

This article will review relevant electromagnetic frequencies, exposure standards and current scientific literature on the health implications of 2G, 3G, 4G exposure, including some of the available literature on 5G frequencies. The question of what constitutes a public health issue will be raised, as well as the need for a precautionary approach in advancing new wireless technologies.


Although 5G technology may have many unimagined uses and benefits, it is also increasingly clear that significant negative consequences to human health and ecosystems could occur if it is widely adopted. Current radiofrequency radiation wavelengths we are exposed to appear to act as a toxin to biological systems. A moratorium on the deployment of 5G is warranted, along with development of independent health and environmental advisory boards that include independent scientists who research biological effects and exposure levels of radiofrequency radiation. Sound regulatory policy regarding current and future telecommunications initiative will require more careful assessment of risks to human health, environmental health, public safety, privacy, security and social consequences. Public health regulations need to be updated to match appropriate independent science with the adoption of biologically based exposure standards prior to further deployment of 4G or 5G technology.

Considering the current science, lack of relevant exposure standards based on known biological effects and data gaps in research, we need to reduce our exposure to RF EMR where ever technically feasible. Laws or policies which restrict the full integrity of science and the scientific community with regards to health and environmental effects of wireless technologies or other toxic exposures should be changed to enable unbiased, objective and precautionary science to drive necessary public policies and regulation. Climate change, fracking, toxic emissions and microwave radiation from wireless devices all have something in common with smoking. There is much denial and confusion about health and environmental risks, along with industry insistence for absolute proof before regulatory action occurs (Frentzel-Beyme, 1994; Michaels 2008). There are many lessons we have not learned with the introduction of novel substances, which later became precarious environmental pollutants by not heeding warning signs from scientists (Gee, 2009). The threats of these common pollutants continue to weigh heavily on the health and wellbeing of our nation. We now accept them as the price of progress. If we do not take precautions but wait for unquestioned proof of harm will it be too late at that point for some or all of us?


More information about 5G:

Physicians for Safe Technology

Scientists and Doctors Demand Moratorium on 5G
5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?
5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects
5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype

Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink 

Nasim I, Kim S. Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink. Submitted on 10 Nov 2017 to IEEE International Communications Conference. arXiv:1711.03683v1.


While cellular communications in millimeter wave (mmW) bands have been attracting significant research interest, their potential harmful impacts on human health are not as significantly studied. Prior research on human exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields in a cellular communications system has been focused on uplink only due to the closer physical contact of a transmitter to a human body. However, this paper claims the necessity of thorough investigation on human exposure to downlink RF fields, as cellular systems deployed in mmW bands will entail (i) deployment of more transmitters due to smaller cell size and (ii) higher concentration of RF energy using a highly directional antenna. In this paper, we present human RF exposure levels in downlink of a Fifth Generation Wireless Systems (5G). Our results show that 5G downlink RF fields generate significantly higher power density (PD) and specific absorption rate (SAR) than a current cellular system. This paper also shows that SAR should also be taken into account for determining human RF exposure in the mmW downlink.

Open access paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.03683

Note: Although this is not a peer-reviewed paper, this may be the first study to explore potential RF exposures under 5G.

Intensity-time dependence dosing criterion in the EMF exposure guidelines in Russia

Rubtsova N, Paltsev Y, Perov S, Bogacheva E. Intensity-time dependence dosing criterion in the EMF exposure guidelines in Russia. Electromagn Biol Med. 2018;37(1):43-49. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2017.1414056. Epub 2018 Mar 1.


Major approaches of the Russian Federation in setting of exposure guidelines to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in occupational and public environments are discussed in this paper. EMF exposure guidelines in Russia are based on the results of hygienic, clinical, physiological, epidemiological and experimental studies and are frequency-dependent. The concept of a threshold principle of occupational and environmental factors due to hazardous exposure effects has been used to set permissible exposure levels of different EMF frequency ranges. The data of experimental studies showed hazardous threshold levels of EMF effects. The main criteria of EMF hazardous exposure evaluated in the experimental study concerned both estimation of threshold levels of chronic (long-term) and acute exposure. Also, this paper contains some recent experimental study data on correlation of long-term radiofrequency and power-frequency EMF exposure effects with regard to time duration, the so-called time-dependence approach. It enables identification of the value of permissible EMF exposure levels depending on exposure duration. This approach is used in occupational exposure guideline setting and requires the introduction of "power exposition" (PE) and "maximal permissible level" (MPL). In general, EMF exposure guidelines are established with regard to possible duration of exposure per day.



Threshold hazardous effect, as mentioned above, is the EMF level that causes significant functional changes of body compensatory systems at the boundary of physiologically normal and abnormal state.

Today, the sphere of interests lies in radiofrequency exposure guideline standardization. Currently, the “dosing-time-dependence approach” is used for EMF frequency range from 30 kHz to 300 GHz. This approach specifies values of EMF-exposure permissible levels depending on exposure duration per work day which helps to provide more adequate evaluation of personnel exposure measurements such as “power exposition” (PE) and “maximal permissible level” (MPL), where MPL is the maximum exposure EMF level for very short time per work day (<10 minutes) (Table 1) (Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 2016). PE is calculated by multiplying the values of electric field or magnetic field by the square value of exposure duration per 8-hr work day, or by multiplying power density value and the value of exposure duration per work day.

An example of EMF Russian hygienic norms for cellular phones is 0.1 mW/cm2 (Rospotrebnadzor of the Russian Federation, 2003). The study directed to EMF rating of cellular phones included examination of cardiovascular and nervous systems of cellular phone users before and after a short-term call of 30 min. The study was also meant to find out intensity-time correlation of EMF biological effects with NMT and GSM systems that were studied at 450, 900 and 1800 MHz
carrier frequencies with modulations. Also, comput ersimulation of EMF absorption in biological objects (rats) was performed.


Mobile phone use during pregnancy with birth weight: Kumamoto of Japan Environment and Children's Study

Lu X, Oda M, Ohba T, Mitsubuchi H, Masuda S, Katoh T. Association of excessive mobile phone use during pregnancy with birth weight: an adjunct study in Kumamoto of Japan Environment and Children's Study. Environ Health Prev Med. 2017 Jun 8;22(1):52. doi: 10.1186/s12199-017-0656-1.


BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been shown to be closely associated with neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibited growth, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases later in life. Some studies have also shown that excessive mobile phone use in the postnatal period may lead to behavioral complications in the children during their growing years; however, the relationship between mobile phone use during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight is not clear. The aim of the present study was to determine the associations of excessive mobile phone use with neonatal birth weight and infant hea lth status.

METHODS: A sample of 461 mother and child pairs participated in a survey on maternal characteristics, infant characteristics, and maternal mobile phone usage information during pregnancy.

RESULTS: Our results showed that pregnant women tend to excessively use mobile phones in Japan. The mean infant birth weight was lower in the excessive use group than in the ordinary use group, and the frequency of infant emergency transport was significantly higher in the excessive use group than in the ordinary use group.

CONCLUSIONS: Excessive mobile phone use during pregnancy may be a risk factor for lower birth weight and a high rate of infant emergency transport.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664573/


RF exposure assessment of baby surveillance devices in the frequency range 400 MHz-2.45 GHz 

Vermeeren G, Joseph W, Martens L. Radiofrequency exposure assessment of baby surveillance devices in the frequency range 400 MHz-2.45 GHz. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Apr;39(3):244-248. doi: 10.1002/bem.22113.

No abstract


We investigated the exposure, in terms of both the peak spatial‐averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) in 10 g of tissue and the time‐averaged root‐mean‐squared (RMS) electric (E) field, induced by baby monitors operating in a frequency range between 400 MHz and 2.45 GHz. We selected nine commercially available baby monitors ...

Considering all investigated devices, the peak spatial SAR in 10 g ranged from 0.09 to 0.37 W/kg, which is 22.3–5.4 times below the ICNIRP basic restriction.

In summary, we measured the induced time‐averaged root‐mean‐square electric field strength and the peak spatial‐averaged specific absorption rate from the baby unit of nine commercially available devices and compared both with the ICNIRP guidelines. The communication technologies implemented in the baby monitors were: PMR446, continuous transmission at 864 MHz, DECT, and communication in the ISM band at 2450 MHz. The electric field was measured at a distance of 50 cm from the baby unit of the baby monitor. We measured the SAR in a flat phantom filled with head tissue simulating liquid and the baby unit touching the flat phantom. The maximum time‐averaged root‐mean‐square electric field value closest to the ICNIRP reference level over all investigated devices was 1.51 V/m (for modern‐electronics DBS 3), which is 19.4 times below the ICNIRP reference level at 466 MHz. The peak spatial‐averaged SAR in 10 g of tissue was 0.37 W/kg in head simulating tissue (for Alecto‐DBX‐82), which is 5.4 times below the basic restriction of 2 W/kg as specified by ICNIRP.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29492985

Note: The ICNIRP guidelines were designed to protect users only from short-term thermal effects.


Heart rate variability affected by RF EMF in adolescent students

Misek J, Belyaev I, Jakusova V, Tonhajzerova I, Barabas J, Jakus J. Heart rate variability affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic field in adolescent students. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Feb 22. doi: 10.1002/bem.22115.


This study examines the possible effect of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect of RF EMF on ANS activity was studied by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) during ortho-clinostatic test (i.e., transition from lying to standing and back) in 46 healthy grammar school students. A 1788 MHz pulsed wave with intensity of 54 ± 1.6 V/m was applied intermittently for 18 min in each trial. Maximum specific absorption rate (SAR10 ) value was determined to 0.405 W/kg. We also measured the respiration rate and estimated a subjective perception of EMF exposure. RF exposure decreased heart rate of subjects in a lying position, while no such change was seen in standing students. After exposure while lying, a rise in high frequency band of HRV and root Mean Square of the Successive Differences was observed, which indicated an increase in parasympathetic nerve activity. Tympanic temperature and skin temperature were measured showing no heating under RF exposure. No RF effect on respiration rate was observed. None of the tested subjects were able to distinguish real exposure from sham exposure when queried at the end of the trial. In conclusion, short-term RF EMF exposure of students in a lying position during the ortho-clinostatic test affected ANS with significant increase in parasympathetic nerve activity compared to sham exposed group.



Estimates of Environmental Exposure to RF EMF and Risk of Lymphoma Subtypes 

G. Satta, N. Mascia, T. Serra, A. Salis, L. Saba, S. Sanna, M. G. Zucca, E. Angelucci, A. Gabbas, F. Culurgioni, P. Pili, E. Mura, M. Cappai, M. G. Ennas, and P. Cocco (2018) Estimates of Environmental Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Risk of Lymphoma Subtypes. Radiation Research In-Press.

We investigated the association between environmental exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and risk of lymphoma subtypes in a case-control study comprised of 322 patients and 444 individuals serving as controls in Sardinia, Italy in 1998–2004. Questionnaire information included the self-reported distance of the three longest held residential addresses from fixed radio-television transmitters and mobile phone base stations. We georeferenced the residential addresses of all study subjects and obtained the spatial coordinates of mobile phone base stations. For each address within a 500-meter radius from a mobile phone base station, we estimated the RF-EMF intensity using predictions from spatial models, and we performed RF-EMF measurements at the door in the subset of the longest held addresses within a 250-meter radius. We calculated risk of lymphoma and its major subtypes associated with the RF-EMF exposure metrics with unconditional logistic regression, adjusting by age, gender and years of education. In the analysis of self-reported data, risk associated with residence in proximity (within 50 meters) to fixed radio-television transmitters was likewise elevated for lymphoma overall [odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.5–4.6], and for the major lymphoma subtypes. With reference to mobile phone base stations, we did not observe an association with either the self-reported, or the geocoded distance from mobile phone base stations. RF-EMF measurements did not vary by case-control status. By comparing the self-reports to the geocoded data, we discovered that the cases tended to underestimate the distance from mobile phone base stations differentially from the controls (P = 0.073). The interpretation of our findings is compromised by the limited study size, particularly in the analysis of the individual lymphoma subtypes, and the unavailability of the spatial coordinates of radio-television transmitters. Nonetheless, our results do not support the hypothesis of a link between environmental exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations and risk of lymphoma subtypes.



Analysis of ear side of mobile phone use in the general population of Japan

Sato Y, Kojimahara N, Taki M, Yamaguchi N. Analysis of ear side of mobile phone use in the general population of Japan.Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Jan;39(1):53-59. doi: 10.1002/bem.22098.


This study aimed to clarify the distribution of the ear side of mobile phone use in the general population of Japan and clarify what factors are associated with the ear side of mobile phone use. Children at elementary and junior high schools (n = 2,518) and adults aged ≥20 years (n = 1,529) completed an Internet-based survey. Data were subjected to a logistic regression analysis. In children, due to the tendency to use the dominant hand, we analyzed the factors associated with the use of right ear in right-handed people. Statistically significant differences were observed only in talk time per call (odds ratio (OR) = 2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-3.99). In adults, due to the tendency to use the left ear, we analyzed factors associated with the use of left ear in right-handed people. Significant differences were observed in those aged 30-39 years (OR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.79-3.68), those aged 40-49 years (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 2.15-4.43), those aged >50 years (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.20-2.85), and in those with a percentage of total talk time when using mobile phones at work of 51-100% (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.21-2.55). We believe that future epidemiological studies on mobile phone use can be improved by considering the trends in mobile phone use identified in this study



Mathematical Structure for EMF that May Reflect Pilot Waves of Bohm’s Implicate Order

Geesink, H.J.H. and Meijer, D.K.F. Mathematical Structure for Electromagnetic Frequencies that May Reflect Pilot Waves of Bohm’s Implicate Order. Journal of Modern Physics, 9, 851-897. 2018.


The mathematical basis for the earlier reported spectrum of discrete electromagnetic field (EMF) frequencies that were shown to affect health and disease is substantiated and generalized in the present paper. The particular EMF pattern was revealed by a meta-analysis of, now, more than 500 biomedical publications that reported life-sustaining as well as life-decaying EMF frequencies. These discrete eigenfrequency values can be related to supposed bio-resonance of solitons or polaron quasi particles in life systems. Bio-solitons are conceived as self-reinforcing solitary waves that are constituting local fields, being involved in intracellular geometric ordering and patterning, as well as in intra- and inter-cellular signalling. Literature search, revealed very similar frequency patterns for wave resonances of nucleotides in aqueous so-lution, for a candidate RNA-catalyst, as well as for sound-induced vibrations evoked in thin vibrating membranes. This collective evidence points at a gen-eralized biophysical algorithm underlying complexity in nature, evidently manifest in both animate and non-animate modalities. The detected EMF eigenfrequencies could be arithmetically scaled according to an adapted Pythagorean tuning. The mathematical analysis shows that the derived arithmetical scale exhibits a sequence of unique products of integer powers of 2, 3 and a factor 2. This generalized semi-harmonic frequency spectrum may reflect a discrete pilot-wave structure that can be interpreted as a, so called, hidden variable in Bohm’s causal interpretation of quantum field theory.



RF EMR and Memory Performance: Sources of Uncertainty in Epidemiological Cohort Studies
Brzozek C, Benke KK, Zeleke BM, Abramson MJ, Benke G.Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation and Memory Performance: Sources of Uncertainty in Epidemiological Cohort Studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Mar 26;15(4). pii: E592. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040592.


Uncertainty in experimental studies of exposure to radiation from mobile phones has in the past only been framed within the context of statistical variability. It is now becoming more apparent to researchers that epistemic or reducible uncertainties can also affect the total error in results. These uncertainties are derived from a wide range of sources including human error, such as data transcription, model structure, measurement and linguistic errors in communication. The issue of epistemic uncertainty is reviewed and interpreted in the context of the MoRPhEUS, ExPOSURE and HERMES cohort studies which investigate the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones on memory performance. Research into this field has found inconsistent results due to limitations from a range of epistemic sources. Potential analytic approaches are suggested based on quantification of epistemic error using Monte Carlo simulation. It is recommended that future studies investigating the relationship between radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation and memory performance pay more attention to treatment of epistemic uncertainties as well as further research into improving exposure assessment. Use of directed acyclic graphs is also encouraged to display the assumed covariate relationship.

Open access paper: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/4/592/htm


Mobile phone specific EMF induce transient DNA damage and nucleotide excision repair in serum-deprived human glioblastoma cells

Halh Al-Serori, Franziska Ferk, Michael Kundi, Andrea Bileck, Christopher Gerner, Miroslav Mišík, Armen Nersesyan, Monika Waldherr, Manuel Murbach, Tamara T. Lah, Christel Herold-Mende, Andrew R. Collins, Siegfried Knasmülle. Mobile phone specific electromagnetic fields induce transient DNA damage and nucleotide excision repair in serum-deprived human glioblastoma cells. PLOS One. April 12, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193677


Some epidemiological studies indicate that the use of mobile phones causes cancer in humans (in particular glioblastomas). It is known that DNA damage plays a key role in malignant transformation; therefore, we investigated the impact of the UMTS signal which is widely used in mobile telecommunications, on DNA stability in ten different human cell lines (six brain derived cell lines, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, liver and buccal tissue derived cells) under conditions relevant for users (SAR 0.25 to 1.00 W/kg). We found no evidence for induction of damage in single cell gel electrophoresis assays when the cells were cultivated with serum. However, clear positive effects were seen in a p53 proficient glioblastoma line (U87) when the cells were grown under serum free conditions, while no effects were found in p53 deficient glioblastoma cells (U251). Further experiments showed that the damage disappears rapidly in U87 and that exposure induced nucleotide excision repair (NER) and does not cause double strand breaks (DSBs). The observation of NER induction is supported by results of a proteome analysis indicating that several proteins involved in NER are up-regulated after exposure to UMTS; additionally, we found limited evidence for the activation of the γ-interferon pathway. The present findings show that the signal causes transient genetic instability in glioma derived cells and activates cellular defense systems.

Open access paper: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193677#sec027


Effect of electromagnetic waves from mobile phones on spermatogenesis in the era of 4G-LTE

Oh JJ,Byun S, Lee SE, Choe G, Hong SK. Effect of electromagnetic waves from mobile phones on spermatogenesis in the era of 4G-LTE. BioMed Research International. Vol 2018 (2018), Article ID 1801798.


Objective. To investigate the effect of long duration exposure to electromagnetic field from mobile phones on spermatogenesis in rats using 4G-LTE.

Methods. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats were placed into 4 groups according to the intensity and exposure duration: Group 1 (sham procedure), Group 2 (3 cm distance + 6 h exposure daily), Group 3 (10 cm distance + 18 h exposure daily), and Group 4 (3 cm distance + 18 h exposure daily). After 1 month, we compared sperm parameters and histopathological findings of the testis.

Results.The mean spermatid count (×106/ml) was 398.6 in Group 1, 365.40 in Group 2, 354.60 in Group 3, and 298.60in Group 4 (𝑝 = 0.041). In the second review, the mean count of spermatogonia in Group 4 (43.00) was significantly lower than in Group 1 (57.00) and Group 2 (53.40) (𝑝 < 0.001 and 𝑝 = 0.010, resp.). The sum of the germ cell counts was decreased in Group 4 compared to Groups 1, 2, and 3 (𝑝 = 0.032). The mean Leydig cell count was significantly decreased in Group 4 (𝑝 < 0.001).

Conclusions.The longer exposure duration of electromagnetic field decreased the spermatogenesis. Our findings warrant further investigations on the potential effects of EMF from mobile phones on male fertility.



1800 MHz mobile phone radiation induced oxidative and nitrosative stress leads to p53 dependent Bax mediated testicular apoptosis in mice

Shahin S, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM. 1800 MHz mobile phone irradiation induced oxidative and nitrosative stress leads to p53 dependent Bax mediated testicular apoptosis in mice, Mus musculus. J Cell Physiol. 2018 Apr 10. doi: 10.1002/jcp.26558.


Present study was carried out to investigate the effect of long-term mobile phone radiation exposure in different operative modes (Dialing, Receiving, and Stand-by) on immature male mice. Three-week old male mice were exposed to mobile phone (1800 MHz) radiation for 3 hr/day for 120 days in different operative modes. To check the changes/alteration in testicular histoarchitecture and serum testosterone level, HE staining and ELISA was performed respectively. Further, we have checked the redox status (ROS, NO, MDA level, and antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx) by biochemical estimation, alteration in the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), active executioner caspase-3, full length/uncleaved PARP-1 (DNA repair enzyme), anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL ) in testes by immunofluorescence and cytosolic cytochrome-c by Western blot. Decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, sperm count, and viability along with increased germ cells apoptosis and decreased serum testosterone level, was observed in the testes of all the mobile phone exposed mice compared with control. We also observed that, mobile phone radiation exposure in all the three different operative modes alters the testicular redox status via increasing ROS, NO, and MDA level, and decreasing antioxidant enzymes levels leading to enhanced apoptosis of testicular cells by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic and apoptotic proteins along with decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic protein. On the basis of results, it is concluded that long-term mobile phone radiation exposure induced oxidative stress leads to apoptosis of testicular cells and thus impairs testicular function.



Oxidative stress and an animal neurotransmitter synthesizing enzyme in the leaves of wild growing myrtle after exposure to GSM radiation

Stefi AL,Vassila copoulou D, Margaritis LH, Christodoulakis NS. Oxidative stress and an animal neurotransmitter synthesizing enzyme in the leaves of wild growing myrtle after exposure to GSM radiation. Flora. Available online 16 April 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2018.04.006


• Mature myrtle plants were exposed to GSM radiation for 30 min, at 48 h intervals, for 50 days.
• Secondary metabolite accumulation was observed in the exposed leaves.
• Photosynthetic pigment content decreased in the exposed leaves.
• The oxidative stress (ROS) increased in the exposed leaves.
• Significant rise of the DDC level was recorded only in the exposed leaves.


Mobile phones turned to be the most common form of public communication. Therefore, life on our planet continues wrapped in a “cloud” of non-ionizing radiations. Myrtus communis L. is an evergreen shrub, common in Mediterranean formations, exposed and adapted to two seasonally separated and qualitatively different environmental stresses. Thus, we considered it important to investigate the response of this tolerant species to emitted GSM non-ionizing radiations and compare it to already available data from thoroughly investigated plant species. Although the leaves of the exposed plants present unaffected tissue arrangement, their mesophyll cells accumulate large amounts of secondary metabolites, their photosynthetic pigments are dramatically reduced, the ROS counted are significantly increased and the presence of DDC, which cannot be detected in the leaves of the control plants, is recorded in high levels. The exposed leaves seem to experience a severe oxidative stress which probably induces DDC expression and the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine, the activation of the shikimate pathway and, eventually, the accumulation of secondary metabolites.



Extremely Low Frequency Fields

Evaluating ELF magnetic fields in the rear seats of electric vehicles

Lin J, Lu M, Wu T, Yang L, Wu T. Evaluating extremely low frequency magnetic fields in the rear seats of the electric vehicles. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2018 Mar 23. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncy048.


In the electric vehicles (EVs), children can sit on a safety seat installed in the rear seats. Owing to their smaller physical dimensions, their heads, generally, are closer to the underfloor electrical systems where the magnetic field (MF) exposure is the greatest. In this study, the magnetic flux density (B) was measured in the rear seats of 10 different EVs, for different driving sessions. We used the measurement results from different heights corresponding to the locations of the heads of an adult and an infant to calculate the induced electric field (E-field) strength using anatomical human models. The results revealed that measured B fields in the rear seats were far below the reference levels by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Although small children may be exposed to higher MF strength, induced E-field strengths were much lower than that of adults due to their particular physical dimensions.



Small children and infants sitting in a safety seat at the rear part of the vehicle is a common occurrence. Children have smaller physical dimensions and, thus, their heads are generally much closer to the car floor, where the MF strength has been reported to be higher due to tire magnetization and the operation of the underfloor electrical systems (6, 7). The matter of children being potentially subject to greater magnetic field exposure may be relevant as leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer (8). In particular, Ahlbom et al. (9) and Greenland et al. (10) indicated that the exposure to 50 and 60 Hz MF exceeding 0.3–0.4 μT may result in an increased risk for childhood leukemia although a satisfactory causal relationship has not yet been reliably demonstrated. Also, it was reported that a combination of weak, steady and alternating MF could modify the radical concentration, which had the potential to lead to biologically significant changes (11).

... the B field values measured at location #4 (floor in from of rear seat) were the highest, followed by values from location #3 (rear seat cushion), #2 (child’s head position) and #1 (adult’s head position) (p < 0.012, α = 0.05/3 = 0.017). There was a significant difference between the driving scenarios (F(3, 117) = 3.72, p = 0.013). The acceleration and deceleration scenarios generated higher B fields compared with the stationary and the 40 km/h driving scenarios (p < 0.01, α = 0.05/3 = 0.017) while no difference was identified between acceleration and deceleration (p = 0.16).

... The results demonstrate that the induced E-field strength was lower for the infant model compared with that of the adult in terms of both the head and body as a whole.

The infant was reported to have higher electrical conductivity (29) but there was no database dedicated to the infant. Furthermore, below 1 MHz, the database was hard to be measured and the uncertainty was large (30). Therefore, we would not include the issue in the study.

Although several SCs on higher frequencies have been observed (can spread to 1.24 kHz), the spectral analysis revealed that the SCs concentrated on bands below 1000 Hz. The EVs under test used aluminum alloy wheel rims, which have low magnetic permeability. However, the steel wire in the reinforcing belts of radial tires pick up magnetic fields from the terrestrial MF. When the tires spin, the magnetized steel wire in the reinforcing belts generates ELF MF usually below 20 Hz, that can exceed 2.0 μT at seat level in the passenger compartment(6). The measurement did not identify the ELF MF by different sources because the purpose of the study was to investigate the realistic exposure scenario for the occupants. To note, degaussing the tires or using the fiberglass belted tires can eliminate this effect and provide the MF results solely introduced by the operation of the electrified system.

ICNIRP proposed guidelines to evaluate the compliance of the non-sinusoidal signal exposure(3). The measurements rendered the maximal B field at the level of one-tenth to several μT, far below the reference level of the guidelines (e.g. 200 μT for 20–400 Hz). The similar non-sinusoidal MF signal magnitudes can only account for 6–10% of the reference levels according to the previous reports(32). However, as noted in the Introduction, ‘… 50 and 60 Hz MF exceeding 0.3–0.4 μT may result in an increased risk for childhood leukemia’. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the MF in the EVs to limit the exposure and for the purpose of epidemiological studies.

In this study, we measured ELF MF in the rear seats of ten types of EVs. The measurements were performed for four different driving scenarios. The measurement results were analyzed to determine the worst-case scenario and those values were used for simulations. We made numerical simulations to compare the induced E-field strength due to the physical difference between children and adults using detailed anatomical models. The results support the contention that the MF in the EVs that we tested was far below the reference levels of the ICNIRP guidelines. Furthermore, our findings show that children would not be more highly exposed compared to adults when taking into consideration of their physical differences. However, the measurement results indicated that further studies should be performed to elucidate the concerns on the incidence of the childhood leukemia for infant and child occupants.


Occupational ELF-MF exposure and hematolymphopoietic cancers - Swiss National Cohort analysis and updated meta-analysis

Huss A, Spoerri A, Egger M, Kromhout H, Vermeulen R; Swiss National Cohort. Occupational extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) exposure and hematolymphopoietic cancers - Swiss National Cohort analysis and updated meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2018 Mar 24;164:467-474. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.03.022.


• ELF-MF exposure may affect specific hematolymphopoietic malignancies rather than “all leukaemia”.
• We evaluated effects of occupational ELF-MF exposure on different types of hematolymphopoietic malignancies.
• We observed increased risks of AML if workers were exposed to higher levels and for a longer period of time.
• Risks were in line with meta-analysed findings of previous studies.


PURPOSE: Previous studies have examined risks of leukaemia and selected lymphoid malignancies in workers exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF). Most studies evaluated hematolymphopoietic malignancies as a combined category, but some analyses suggested that effects may be contained to some specific leukaemia or lymphoma subtypes, with inconsistent results.

METHODS: We examined exposure to ELF-MF and mortality 1990-2008 from different types of hematolymphopoietic cancers in the Swiss National Cohort, using a job exposure matrix for occupations recorded at censuses 1990 and 2000. We analysed 3.1 million workers exposed at different levels to ELF-MF: ever-high, only-medium, only-low exposure using Cox proportional hazard models. We evaluated risk of death from acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukaemia, lymphoid leukaemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, follicular lymphoma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, multiple myeloma and Hodgkin lymphoma.

RESULTS: Mortality from hematolymphopoietic cancers was not associated with exposure to ELF-MF with the exception of an increase in ever-high exposed men of myeloid leukaemias (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.67), and AML (HR 1.26, 95%CI 0.93-1.70). If workers had been high exposed during their vocational training and at both censuses, these HR increased to 2.24 (95%CI 0.91-5.53) and 2.75 (95%CI 1.11-6.83), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis provided no convincing evidence for an increased risk of death from a range of hematolymphopoietic cancers in workers exposed to high or medium levels of ELF magnetic fields. However, we observed an increased risk of acute myeloid leukaemia in workers exposed to high levels for a longer duration. Observed risks are in line with meta-analysed previous reports on ELF-MF exposure and AML risk, with a summary relative risk of 1.21 (95%CI 1.08-1.37).



Residential mobility and childhood leukemia

Amoon AT, Oksuzyan S, Crespi CM, Arah OA, Cockburn M, Vergara X, Kheifets L. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia. Environ Res. 2018 Mar 22;164:459-466. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.03.016. [Epub ahead of print]


• Children who moved were older, had younger mothers, and lower SES.
• Non-movers showed stronger associations with EMF exposures and childhood leukemia.
• Adjustment for variables predicting mobility, save dwelling, did not alter results.
• Mobility does not appear to explain observed links between EMF and leukemia.


AIMS: Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility.

METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility.

RESULTS: Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living <50 meters (m) from a 200+ kilovolt line (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 0.72-3.65) and for calculated fields ≥ 0.4 microTesla (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 0.65-4.52) were slightly higher than previously reported overall results. Adjustments for propensity scores based on all variables predictive of mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living < 50 m from a 200 + kilovolt line and to 1.98 (1.11-3.52) for calculated fields. Individual or propensity-score adjustments for all variables, except dwelling type, did not materially change the estimates of power line exposures on childhood leukemia.

CONCLUSION: The residential mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia.

Funding: This work was supported by the Electric Power Research Institute. Crespi was also partially supported by the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (grant P30 CA16042). Vergara is an employee of the Electric Power Research Institute.



Reactive oxygen species mediates 50-Hz magnetic field-induced EGF receptor clustering via acid sphingomyelinase activation

Sun L, Chen L, Bai L, Xia Y, Yang X, Jiang W, Sun W. Reactive oxygen species mediates 50-Hz magnetic field-induced EGF receptor clustering via acid sphingomyelinase activation. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Apr 16:1-19. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1466208.


PURPOSE: Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-MFs) could elicit biological effects including carcinogenesis. However, the detailed mechanisms by which these ELF-MFs interact with biological system are currently unclear. Previously, we found that a 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) exposure could induce epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) clustering and phosphorylation on cell membranes. In the present experiment, the possible roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MF-induced EGFR clustering were investigated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human amnion epithelial (FL) cells were exposed to a 50-Hz MF with or without N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). EGFR clustering on cellular membrane surface was analyzed using confocal microscopy after indirect immunofluorescence staining. The intracellular ROS level and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) activity were detected using a reactive oxygen species assay kit and an Amplex® Red Sphingomyelinase Assay Kit, respectively.

RESULTS: Results showed that exposure of FL cells to a 50-Hz MF at 0.4 mT for 15 min significantly enhanced the ROS level, induced EGFR clustering and increased ASMase activity. However, pretreatment with NAC or PDTC, the scavenger of ROS, not only counteracted the effects of a 50-Hz MF on ROS level and AMS activity, but also inhibited the EGFR clustering induced by MF exposure.

CONCLUSION: Based on present and previous data, it suggests that ROS mediates the MF-induced EGFR clustering via ASMase activation.



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Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: http://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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