Raise awareness of environmental health issues in order to better protect our children and future generations.

31 May 2018

Fifteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (24 May 2018)

Fifteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 24 May 2018

News

EMF-Portal has announced that they can once again import scientific papers covering the radio frequency range and can close the gap in their archive through April 30, 2018, thanks to financial support from their users. However, they will need additional donations to continue to archive these papers beyond April. The International EMF Scientist Appeal is now one of twelve organizations that fund this archive of EMF science.

Although we have known for a long time that the FCC has ignored public health due to industry capture, the FCC now also ignores Congressional inquiries on various topics including net neutrality and radiofrequency radiation:

"The House Subcommittee on Communications and Technology, one of the illustrious commissions of the US Congress, has written to FCC Chairman Ajit Pai asking why he is continuing to ignore communications from elected representatives."

"On August 15 2017, Senator Richard Blumenthal and Congresswomen Eshoo wrote to Pai requesting updates to rules and protections for workers who may be at risk from radiofrequency radiation. This letter followed similar requests to the FCC in 2015 and 2013, though Pai cannot be blamed in those circumstances." (Davies J. "US Congress asks Pai why he keeps ignoring its letters." telecoms.com, May 24, 2018).

Recent PapersI have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since August, 2016. Several hundred scientists around the world receive these updates.

Since I have received numerous requests to post the abstracts on my EMR Safety website, I compiled the collection into a document which which now contains more than 400 abstracts (including the papers below). The document can be downloaded from the following web page:

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

Fifteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health
Radio Frequency Radiation

Spatial and temporal variability of personal environmental exposure to RF EMF in children in Europe


Birks LE, Struchen B, Eeftens M, van Wel L, Huss A, Gajšek P, Kheifets L, Gallastegi M, Dalmau-Bueno A, Estarlich M, Fernandez MF, Meder IK, Ferrero A, Jiménez-Zabala A, Torrent M, Vrijkotte TGM, Cardis E, Olsen J, Valič B, Vermeulen R, Vrijheid M, Röösli M, Guxens M. Spatial and temporal variability of personal environmental exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields in children in Europe. Environ Int. 2018 May 10;117:204-214. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.04.026.

Highlights
• We describe personal environmental RF-EMF exposure from mobile communication in European children.
• 529 children carried personal exposure meters for up to 3 days during 2014–2016.
• Median personal environmental RF-EMF exposure was 75.5 μW/m2.
• Downlink was largest contributor to total environmental exposure (median 27.2 μW/m2).
• Urban environment was most important determinant of total environmental exposure.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has rapidly increased and little is known about exposure levels in children. This study describes personal RF-EMF environmental exposure levels from handheld devices and fixed site transmitters in European children, the determinants of this, and the day-to-day and year-to-year repeatability of these exposure levels.

METHODS: Personal environmental RF-EMF exposure (μW/m2, power flux density) was measured in 529 children (ages 8-18 years) in Denmark, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Switzerland, and Spain using personal portable exposure meters for a period of up to three days between 2014 and 2016, and repeated in a subsample of 28 children one year later. The meters captured 16 frequency bands every 4 seconds and incorporated a GPS. Activity diaries and questionnaires were used to collect children's location, use of handheld devices, and presence of indoor RF-EMF sources. Six general frequency bands were defined: total, digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT), television and radio antennas (broadcast), mobile phones (uplink), mobile phone base stations (downlink), and Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). We used adjusted mixed effects models with region random effects to estimate associations of handheld device use habits and indoor RF-EMF sources with personal RF-EMF exposure. Day-to-day and year-to-year repeatability of personal RF-EMF exposure were calculated through intraclass correlations (ICC).

RESULTS: Median total personal RF-EMF exposure was 75.5 μW/m2. Downlink was the largest contributor to total exposure (median: 27.2 μW/m2) followed by broadcast (9.9 μW/m2). Exposure from uplink (4.7 μW/m2) was lower. WiFi and DECT contributed very little to exposure levels. Exposure was higher during day (94.2 μW/m2) than night (23.0 μW/m2), and slightly higher during weekends than weekdays, although varying across regions. Median exposures were highest while children were outside (157.0 μW/m2) or traveling (171.3 μW/m2), and much lower at home (33.0 μW/m2) or in school (35.1 μW/m2). Children living in urban environments had higher exposure than children in rural environments. Older children and users of mobile phones had higher uplink exposure but not total exposure, compared to younger children and those that did not use mobile phones. Day-to-day repeatability was moderate to high for most of the general frequency bands (ICCs between 0.43 and 0.85), as well as for total, broadcast, and downlink for the year-to-year repeatability (ICCs between 0.49 and 0.80) in a small subsample.

CONCLUSION: The largest contributors to total personal environmental RF-EMF exposure were downlink and broadcast, and these exposures showed high repeatability. Urbanicity was the most important determinant of total exposure and mobile phone use was the most important determinant of uplink exposure. It is important to continue evaluating RF-EMF exposure in children as device use habits, exposure levels, and main contributing sources may change.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29754001

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Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hedendahl LK. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report. Oncol Lett. 2018 May;15(5):7871-7883. doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.8285.

Abstract

Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2-112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5920374/
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Characteristics of perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the general population

Gruber MJ, Palmquist E, Nordin S. Characteristics of perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the general population. Scand J Psychol. 2018 May 9. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12449.

Abstract

Health problems evoked in the presence of electrical equipment is a concern, calling for better understanding for characteristics of electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in the general population. The present study investigated demographics, lifestyle factors, frequency and duration, coping strategies, proportion meeting clinical criteria for intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated persons with self-reported (n = 91) EHS in comparison to referents (n = 3,250). Middle age, female sex and poor perceived health was found to be associated with EHS. More than 50% in the EHS group reported having EMF-related symptoms more often than once a week, and the mean number of years experiencing EHS was 10.5. More than half of the EHS group reported that their symptoms started after a high-dose or long-term EMF exposure, that they actively tried to avoid EMF sources and that they mostly could affect the EMF environment. A minority of the EHS group had sought medical attention, been diagnosed by a physician or received treatment. Exhaustion syndrome, anxiety disorder, back/joint/muscle disorder, depression, functional somatic syndrome and migraine were comorbid with EHS. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of EHS and or consequences of EHS.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29741795

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Is MRI imaging in pediatric age totally safe? A critical reprisal.

Salerno S, Granata C, Trapenese M, Cannata V, Curione D, Rossi Espagnet MC, Magistrelli A, Tomà P. Is MRI imaging in pediatric age totally safe? A critical reprisal. Radiol Med. 2018 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s11547-018-0896-1.

Abstract

Current radiological literature is strongly focussed on radiation imaging risks. Indeed, given there is a small but actual augment in cancer risk from exposure to ionizing radiation in children, it is important to understand what the risk of alternative techniques could be. We retrospectively review literature data concerning possible MR imaging risks, focussing on the biological effects of MR, sedation and gadolinium compound risks when dealing with infant patients. The main concerns can be summarized in: (1) Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) employed-whose mechanisms of interaction with human tissues are polarization, induced current, and thermal heating, respectively. (2) Risks associated with noises produced during MRI examinations. (3) Hazards from ferromagnetic external and/or implanted devices-whose risk of being unintentionally brought inside MR room is higher in children than in adults. (4) Risks associated with sedation or general anaesthesia, essential problem in performing MR in very young patients, due to the exam long-lasting. (5) Risks related to gadolinium-based contrast agents, especially considering the newly reported brain deposition.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29725913

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RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

Wiedemann PM, Freudenstein F, Böhmert C, Wiart J, Croft RJ. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jun 8;14(6). pii: E620. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14060620.

Abstract

An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study's multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the acceptance of base stations in their neighborhood. This underlines the value of exposure reduction for the acceptance of radio frequency electromagnetic field communication technologies.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28594366

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Effective Analysis of Human Exposure Conditions with Body-worn Dosimeters in the 2.4 GHz Band

de Miguel-Bilbao S, Blas J, Ramos V. Effective Analysis of Human Exposure Conditions with Body-worn Dosimeters in the 2.4 GHz Band. J Vis Exp. 2018 May 2;(135). doi: 10.3791/56525.

Abstract

A well-defined experimental procedure is put forward to evaluate maximum exposure conditions in a worst-case scenario whilst avoiding the uncertainties caused by the use of personal exposimeters (PEMs) as measuring devices: the body shadow effect (BSE), the limited sensitivity range, and the non-identification of the radiation source. An upper bound for exposure levels to EMF in several indoor enclosures has been measured and simulated. The frequency used for the study is 2.4 GHz, as it is the most commonly used band in indoor communications. Although recorded values are well below the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels, there is a particular need to provide reliable exposure levels within particularly sensitive environments. In terms of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure, limits established in national and international standards for health protection have been set for unperturbed exposure conditions; that is, for real and objective exposure data that have not been altered in any way.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29781983

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Hippocampal alterations triggered by acute exposure of mice to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation

Fragopoulou AF, Polyzos A, Papadopoulou MD, Sansone A, Manta AK, Balafas E, Kostomitsopoulos N, Skouroliakou A, Chatgilialoglu C, Georgakilas A, Stravopodis DJ, Ferreri C, Thanos D, Margaritis LH. Hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome profile alterations triggered by acute exposure of mice to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation: An exploratory study. Brain Behav. 2018 May 22.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The widespread use of wireless devices during the last decades is raising concerns about adverse health effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from these devices. Recent research is focusing on unraveling the underlying mechanisms of RF-EMR and potential cellular targets. The "omics" high-throughput approaches are powerful tools to investigate the global effects of RF-EMR on cellular physiology.

METHODS: In this work, C57BL/6 adult male mice were whole-body exposed (nExp = 8) for 2 hr to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation at an average electric field intensity range of 4.3-17.5 V/m or sham-exposed (nSE = 8), and the RF-EMR effects on the hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome profiles were assessed 6 hr later.

RESULTS: The data analysis of the phospholipid fatty acid residues revealed that the levels of four fatty acids [16:0, 16:1 (6c + 7c), 18:1 9c, eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 (EPA, 20:5 ω3)] and the two fatty acid sums of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA and MUFA) were significantly altered (p < 0.05) in the exposed group. The observed changes indicate a membrane remodeling response of the tissue phospholipids after nonionizing radiation exposure, reducing SFA and EPA, while increasing MUFA residues. The microarray data analysis demonstrated that the expression of 178 genes changed significantly (p < 0.05) between the two groups, revealing an impact on genes involved in critical biological processes, such as cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, cell death, cell signaling, nervous system development and function, immune system response, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence that mobile phone radiation induces hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome changes that may explain the brain proteome changes and memory deficits previously shown by our group.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29786969

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2450 MHz EMR exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial dysfunction & activation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in rats

Gupta SK, Mesharam MK, Krishnamurthy S. Electromagnetic radiation 2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in rats. Journal of Biosciences. 43(2):263-276. June 2018.

Abstract

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) can induce or modulate several neurobehavioral disorders. Duration and frequency of exposure of EMR is critical to develop cognitive disorders. Even though EMR-2450 is widely used, its effects on cognition in relation to mitochondrial function and apoptosis would provide better understanding of its pathophysiological effects. Therefore, a comparative study of different frequencies of EMR exposure would give valuable information on effects of discrete frequencies of EMR on cognition. Male rats were exposed to EMR (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz) every day for 1 h for 28 consecutive days. The cognitive behavior in terms of novel arm entries in Y-maze paradigm was evaluated every week after 1 h to last EMR exposure. Animals exposed to EMR-2450 MHz exhibited significant cognitive deficits. EMR-2450 MHz caused loss of mitochondrial function and integrity, an increase in amyloid beta expression. There was release of cytochrome-c and activation of apoptotic factors such as caspase-9 and -3 in the hippocampus. Further, there was decrease in levels of acetylcholine, and increase in activity of acetyl cholinesterase, indicating impairment of cholinergic system. Therefore, exposure of EMR-2450 in rats caused cognitive deficit with related pathophysiological changes in mitochondrial and cholinergic function, and amyloidogenesis.

Excerpts

The horn antenna was connected to the generator, which emitted continuous radiofrequency (RF) signals of 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz.

The rats were kept inside the cage and positioned at distance of 8, 11 and 15 cm from the antenna for exposure to 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz respectively to maintain the required power density, which is described in the following section.

The animals after being exposed to 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz EMR, the average power density was found to be 0.1227 W/m2. While the overall value of whole body average SAR was found to be approximately, 0.0227, 0.030 and 0.0616 W/kg for 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz respectively.

In summary, EMR at 2450 MHz induced cognitive behavioral deficit with concomitant loss in mitochondrial function. Alteration in the activity of mitochondrial complex enzyme systems caused oxidative stress and decrease in MMP, which ultimately lead to loss of mitochondrial integrity. Further, mitochondrial stress as observed from increases in cytochrome-c activated the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3, indicating mitochondrial-linked apoptosis. Furthermore, exposure with EMR-2450 increased expression of hippocampal Aβ and decreased cholinergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus, which are considered to be important factors for development of cognitive dysfunction.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12038-018-9744-7

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Measurement of 100 MHz EMF radiation in vivo effects on zebrafish embryonic development

Piccinetti CC, De Leo A, Cosoli G, Scalise L, Randazzo B, Cerri B. Olivotto I. Measurement of the 100 MHz EMF radiation in vivo effects on zebrafish D. rerio embryonic development: A multidisciplinary study. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 154:268-279. June 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.02.053

Highlights

• Setting up of an EMF exposure protocol for the unequivocal interpretation of results.
• Assessment of biological effects arising from RF-EMF exposure during zebrafish embryonic development.
• Zebrafish as a useful experimental model in electromagnetic pollution studies.

Abstract

The augmented exposure of both environment and human being to electromagnetic waves and the concomitant lack of an unequivocal knowledge about biological consequences of these radiations, raised public interest on electromagnetic pollution. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the biological effects on zebrafish (ZF) embryos of 100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure through a multidisciplinary protocol.

Because of the shared synteny between human and ZF genomes that validated its use in biomedical research, toxicology and developmental biology studies, ZF was here selected as experimental model and a measurement protocol and biological analyses have been set up to clearly discriminate between RF-EMF biological and thermal effects.

The results showed that a 100 MHz EMF was able to affect ZF embryonic development, from 24 to 72 h post fertilization (hpf) in all the analyzed pathways. Particularly, at the 48 hpf stage, a reduced growth, an increased transcription of oxidative stress genes, the onset of apoptotic/autophagic processes and a modification in cholesterol metabolism were detected. ZF embryos faced stress induced by EMF radiation by triggering detoxification mechanisms and at 72 hpf they partially recovered from stress reaching the hatching time in a comparable way respect to the control group.

Data here obtained showed unequivocally the in vivo effects of RF-EMF on an animal model, excluding thermal outcomes and thus represents the starting point for more comprehensive studies on dose response effects of electromagnetic fields radiations consequences.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651318301489

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Oxidative stress & an animal neurotransmitter synthesizing enzyme in wild growing myrtle leaves after GSM radiation exposure
Aikaterina L, Stefi AL, Vassilacopoulou D, Margaritis LH, Christodoulakis NS. Oxidative stress and an animal neurotransmitter synthesizing enzyme in the leaves of wild growing myrtle after exposure to GSM radiation. Flora. 243:67-76. June 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2018.04.006

Highlights• Mature myrtle plants were exposed to GSM radiation for 30 min, at 48 h intervals, for 50 days.
• Secondary metabolite accumulation was observed in the exposed leaves.
• Photosynthetic pigment content decreased in the exposed leaves.
• The oxidative stress (ROS) increased in the exposed leaves.
• Significant rise of the DDC level was recorded only in the exposed leaves.

Abstract

Mobile phones turned to be the most common form of public communication. Therefore, life on our planet continues wrapped in a “cloud” of non-ionizing radiations. Myrtus communis L. is an evergreen shrub, common in Mediterranean formations, exposed and adapted to two seasonally separated and qualitatively different environmental stresses. Thus, we considered it important to investigate the response of this tolerant species to emitted GSM non-ionizing radiations and compare it to already available data from thoroughly investigated plant species. Although the leaves of the exposed plants present unaffected tissue arrangement, their mesophyll cells accumulate large amounts of secondary metabolites, their photosynthetic pigments are dramatically reduced, the ROS counted are significantly increased and the presence of DDC, which cannot be detected in the leaves of the control plants, is recorded in high levels. The exposed leaves seem to experience a severe oxidative stress which probably induces DDC expression and the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine, the activation of the shikimate pathway and, eventually, the accumulation of secondary metabolites.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367253018301208--

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Selenium supplementation ameliorates electromagnetic field-induced oxidative stress in HEK293 cells

Özsobacı NP, Ergün DD, Durmuş S, Tunçdemir M, Uzun H, Gelişgen R, Özçelik D.Selenium supplementation ameliorates electromagnetic field-induced oxidative stress in the HEK293 cells. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. Available online 13 April 2018

There is a widespread use of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic radiation emitting devices especially in communication and education. Recent studies show the adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) such as oxidative stress, cellular damage and apoptosis on tissues. Selenium (Se) has an antioxidant properties by inhibiting oxidative damage being within the structure of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and it has also regulatory function for cell cycle and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Se on 2.4 GHz frequency EMF exposed human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) by means of alterations in apoptotic and oxidative stress parameters.

Our study was planned as control, EMF, 100 nM Se+EMF, 200 nM Se+EMF groups. EMF groups were exposed to 2.4 GHz EMF for 1 hour, element groups were incubated with two different doses of Se added cell culture medium for 48 hour before EMF exposure.

MDA levels were significantly higher whereas SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly lower in EMF compared to control. 100 and 200 nM Se + EMF application decreased MDA levels, increased SOD and GSH-Px activities than EMF. Apoptosis and caspase-3 were statistically significantly higher but bcl-2 was lower in EMF than control. Apoptosis and caspase-3 were lower in 100 and 200 nM Se + EMF, although bcl-2 were higher than EMF.

In conclusion, Se has protective effects against 2.4 GHz EMF-induced oxidative stress by reducing lipid peroxidation, regulating SOD and GSH-Px activity. Also, Se has inhibitory effect on 2.4 GHz EMF induced apoptosis by increasing the expression of anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 and suppressing apoptosis regulatory protein caspase-3.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0946672X17309768/pdfft?md5=8b8434bd54416111b883a00e4a6edfba&pid=1-s2.0-S0946672X17309768-main.pdf

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Extremely Low Frequency Fields

Residential magnetic fields exposure and childhood leukemia: a population-based case-control study in California

Thomas DC. Re: Kheifets et al. (2017): Residential magnetic fields exposure and childhood leukemia: a population-based case-control study in California. Cancer Causes Control 2018. doi:10.1007/s10552-018-1037-9

No abstract

Excerpts

In contrast, our LA County study reported OR 2.19 (95% CI 1.12–4.31; p for trend = .007) in our highest exposure category (MF > 0.125 µT) ...,

Finally, our wiring-based model found an association between residential MF and childhood leukemia when measurements alone did not [2], supporting the hypothesis that the temporal stability of distribution and transmission lines makes their wiring characteristics a better predictor of long-term residential MF exposures.

Discussion of possible mechanisms that could account for our reported effects as lower levels is beyond the scope of this comparison with previous literature, but a brief summary is provided in the Supplementary Comments. These findings suggest that innovations in ELF-MF exposure assessment may lead to more informative studies of the childhood leukemia association than the HVTL-only approach.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10552-018-1037-9

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ELF EMF impair the Cognitive and Motor Abilities of Honey Bees

Shepherd S, Lima MAP, Oliveira EE, Sharkh SM, Jackson CW, Newland PL. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields impair the Cognitive and Motor Abilities of Honey Bees. Sci Rep. 2018 May 21;8(1):7932. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26185-y.

Abstract

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) pollution from overhead powerlines is known to cause biological effects across many phyla, but these effects are poorly understood. Honey bees are important pollinators across the globe and due to their foraging flights are exposed to relatively high levels of ELF EMF in proximity to powerlines. Here we ask how acute exposure to 50 Hz ELF EMFs at levels ranging from 20-100 µT, found at ground level below powerline conductors, to 1000-7000 µT, found within 1 m of the conductors, affects honey bee olfactory learning, flight, foraging activity and feeding. ELF EMF exposure was found to reduce learning, alter flight dynamics, reduce the success of foraging flights towards food sources, and feeding. The results suggest that 50 Hz ELF EMFs emitted from powerlines may represent a prominent environmental stressor for honey bees, with the potential to impact on their cognitive and motor abilities, which could in turn reduce their ability to pollinate crops.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29785039

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ELF EMF exposure and restraint stress induce changes on the brain lipid profile of Wistar rats
Martínez-Sámano J, Flores-Poblano A, Verdugo-Díaz L, Juárez-Oropeza MA, Torres-Durán PV. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure and restraint stress induce changes on the brain lipid profile of Wistar rats. BMC Neurosci. 2018 May 21;19(1):31. doi: 10.1186/s12868-018-0432-1.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Exposure to electromagnetic fields can affect human health, damaging tissues and cell homeostasis. Stress modulates neuronal responses and composition of brain lipids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure, restraint stress (RS) or both (RS + ELF-EMF) on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in Wistar rat brain.

METHODS: Twenty-four young male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: control, RS, ELF-EMF exposure, and RS + ELF-EMF for 21 days. After treatment, rats were euthanized, the blood was obtained for quantitate plasma corticosterone concentration and their brains were dissected in cortex, cerebellum and subcortical structures for cholesterol, triacylglycerols, total free fatty acids, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) analysis. In addition, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were identified by gas chromatography.

RESULTS: Increased values of plasma corticosterone were found in RS and ELF-EMF exposed groups (p < 0.05), this effect was higher in RS + ELF-EMF group (p < 0.05, vs. control group). Chronic ELF-EMF exposure increased total lipids in cerebellum, and total cholesterol in cortex, but decreased polar lipids in cortex. In subcortical structures, increased concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids were observed in RS + ELF-EMF group. FAMEs analysis revealed a decrease of polyunsaturated fatty acids of cerebellum and increases of subcortical structures in the ELF-EMF exposed rats. TBARS concentration in lipids was increased in all treated groups compared to control group, particularly in cortex and cerebellum regions.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that chronic exposure to ELF-EMF is similar to physiological stress, and induce changes on brain lipid profile.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29783956

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Effect of weak static & ELF alternating magnetic fields on memory & brain amyloid-β in two animal models of Alzheimer’s disease

Bobkova NV, Novikov VV. Medvinskaya NI, Aleksandrova IY, Nesterova IV, Fesenko EE. Effect of weak combined static and extremely low-frequency alternating magnetic fields on spatial memory and brain amyloid-β in two animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Electromagnetic Biol Med. May 2018.

Abstract

Subchronic effect of a weak combined magnetic field (MF), produced by superimposing a constant component, 42 µT and an alternating MF of 0.08 µT, which was the sum of two frequencies of 4.38 and 4.88 Hz, was studied in olfactory bulbectomized (OBE) and transgenic Tg (APPswe, PSEN1) mice, which were used as animal models of sporadic and heritable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) accordingly. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris water maze on the following day after completion of training trials with the hidden platform removed. The amyloid-β (Aβ) level was determined in extracts of the cortex and hippocampus of mice using a specific DOT analysis while the number and dimensions of amyloid plaques were detected after their staining with thioflavin S in transgenic animals. Exposure to the MFs (4 h/day for 10 days) induced the decrease of Aβ level in brain of OBE mice and reduced the number of Aβ plaques in the cortex and hippocampus of Tg animals. However, memory improvement was revealed in Tg mice only, but not in the OBE animals. Here, we suggest that in order to prevent the Aβ accumulation, MFs could be used at early stage of neuronal degeneration in case of AD and other diseases with amyloid protein deposition in other tissues.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15368378.2018.1471700

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Recent Updates on Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?
5G Moratorium Website Launched
Electromagnetic Fields Threaten Wildlife

EMF Health Impacts and Policy Change Webinar
Recent Research on Wi-Fi Effects
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
National Toxicology Program: Peer & public review of cell phone radiation study reports

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Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: http://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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