Raise awareness of environmental health issues in order to better protect our children and future generations.

23 July 2018

Fourteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (23 July 2018)

Fourteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 23 July 2018

Note from Dr. Moscowitz: I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since August, 2016. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates.

Since I have received numerous requests to post the abstracts on my EMR Safety website, I compiled the collection into a document which now contains more than 400 abstracts (including the papers below). To see the latest studies or download the document go to the following web page:

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields


Recent Papers

Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective

Belpomme D, Hardell, L, Belyaev I, Burgio E, Carpenter DO. Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective. Environ Pollut. 2018 Jul 6;242(Pt A):643-658. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.019.



Highlights

• Exposure to electromagnetic fields has increased dramatically.
• Electromagnetic fields at low and non-thermal intensities increase risk of cancer in animals and humans.
• Some individuals are particularly sensitive and develop a syndrome of electrohypersensitivity.
• There is an urgent need to recognize hazards associated with excessive exposure to non-thermal levels of electromagnetic fields.

Abstract

Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse effects on male and female reproduction, almost certainly due to generation of reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence the exposures can result in neurobehavioral decrements and that some individuals develop a syndrome of "electro-hypersensitivity" or "microwave illness", which is one of several syndromes commonly categorized as "idiopathic environmental intolerance". While the symptoms are non-specific, new biochemical indicators and imaging techniques allow diagnosis that excludes the symptoms as being only psychosomatic. Unfortunately standards set by most national and international bodies are not protective of human health. This is a particular concern in children, given the rapid expansion of use of wireless technologies, the greater susceptibility of the developing nervous system, the hyperconductivity of their brain tissue, the greater penetration of radiofrequency radiation relative to head size and their potential for a longer lifetime exposure.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30025338



Final section of the paper: Public Health Implications of Human Exposure to EMFs

The incidence of brain cancer in children and adolescents has increased between 2000 and 2010 (Ostrom et al., 2015). Gliomas are increasing in the Netherlands (Ho et al., 2014), glioblastomas are increasing in Australia (Dobes et al., 2011) and England (Philips et al., 2018) and all brain cancers are increasing in Spain (Etxeberrua et al., 2015) and Sweden (Hardell and Carlberg, 2017). The latency period between initial exposure and clinical occurrence of brain cancer is not known but is estimated to be long. While not all reports of brain cancer rates show an increase, some do. The continually increasing exposure to EMFs from all sources may contribute to these increases. The prevalence of EHS is unknown, but various reports suggest that it is between 1 and 10% of the population (Hallberg and Oberfeld, 2006; Huang et al., 2018). Male fertility has been declining (Geoffroy-Siraudin et al., 2012; Levine et al., 2017). EMFs increase the risk of each of these diseases and others. Alzheimer's disease is increasing in many countries worldwide and its association with ELF-EMF occupational exposure has been clearly demonstrated through several independent epidemiological studies (Davanipour and Sobel, 2009; Sobel et al., 1996; Qiu et al., 2004) and a meta-analysis of these studies (García et al., 2008). A recent meta-analysis (Huss et al., 2018) has reported an increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in workers occupationally exposure to ELF-EMFs.

Safety limits for RF exposure have been based (until today) on the thermal effects of EMFs. But these standards do not protect people, particularly children, from the deleterious health effects of non-thermal EMFs (Nazıroğlu et al., 2013; Mahmoudabadi et al., 2015). Each of these diseases is associated with decrements in health and quality of life. Brain cancer patients often die is spite of some improvement in treatment, while EHS patients present with increased levels of distress, inability to work, and progressive social withdrawal. The ability for humans to reproduce is fundamental for the maintenance of our species.

The scientific evidence for harm from EMFs is increasingly strong. We do not advocate going back to the age before electricity or wireless communication, but we deplore the present failure of public health international bodies to recognize the scientific data showing the adverse effects of EMFs on human health. It is encouraging that some governments are taking action. France has removed WiFi from pre-schools and ordered Wi-Fi to be shut off in elementary schools when not in use (http://www.telegraph.co.uk.news/2017/12/11/france-ipose-total-ban-mobile-phones-schools/). The State of California Department of Public Health has issued a warning on use of mobile phones and offered advice on how to reduce exposure (State of California, 2017). There are many steps that are neither difficult nor expensive that can be taken to use modern technology but in a manner that significally reduces threats to human health.

It is urgent that national and international bodies, particularly the WHO, take this significant public health hazard seriously and make appropriate recommendations for protective measures to reduce exposures. This is especially urgently needed for children and adolescents. It is also important that all parts of society, especially the medical community, educators, and the general public, become informed about the hazards associated with exposure to EMFs and of the steps that can be easily taken to reduce exposure and risk of associated disease.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30025338

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Cohort study of adolescents' memory performance & brain dose of microwave radiation from wireless EMF



Foerster M., Thielens A., Joseph W., Eeftens M., Röösli M. (2018) A prospective cohort study of adolescents' memory performance and individual brain dose of microwave radiation from wireless communication. Environmental Health Perspectives.

Full text:  https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp2427/

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The potential impact of microwave radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by wireless communication devices on neurocognitive functions of adolescents is controversial. In a previous analysis, we found changes in figural memory scores associated with a higher cumulative RF-EMF brain dose in adolescents.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to follow-up our previous results using a new study population, dose estimation, and approach to controlling for confounding from media usage itself.

METHODS: RF-EMF brain dose for each participant was modeled. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted on verbal and figural memory score changes over 1 y and on estimated cumulative brain dose and RF-EMF related and unrelated media usage (n=669–676). Because of the hemispheric lateralization of memory, we conducted a laterality analysis for phone call ear preference. To control for the confounding of media use behaviors, a stratified analysis for different media usage groups was also conducted.

RESULTS: We found decreased figural memory scores in association with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in estimated cumulative RF-EMF brain dose scores: −0:22 (95% CI: −0:47, 0.03; IQR: 953 mJ=kg per day) in the whole sample, −0:39 (95% CI: −0:67, −0:10; IQR: 953 mJ=kg per day) in right-side users (n=532), and −0:26 (95% CI: −0:42, −0:10; IQR: 341 mJ=kg per day) when recorded network operator data were used for RF-EMF dose estimation (n=274). Media usage unrelated to RF-EMF did not show significant associations or consistent patterns, with the exception of consistent (nonsignificant) positive associations between data traffic duration and verbal memory.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings for a cohort of Swiss adolescents require confirmation in other populations but suggest a potential adverse effect of of RF-EMF brain dose on cognitive functions that involve brain regions mostly exposed during mobile phone use. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2427

Conclusion

We found preliminary evidence suggesting that RF-EMF may affect brain functions such as figural memory in regions that are
most exposed during mobile phone use. Our findings do not provide conclusive evidence of causal effects and should be interpreted with caution until confirmed in other populations. Associations with media use parameters with low RF-EMF exposures did not provide clear or consistent support of effects of media use unrelated to RF-EMF (with the possible exception of consistent positive associations between verbal memory and data traffic duration). It is not yet clear which brain processes could be potentially affected and what biophysical mechanism may play a role. Potential long-term risk can be minimized by avoiding high brain-exposure situations as occurs when using a mobile phone with maximum power close to the ear because of, for example, bad network quality.


Original study from 2015:

Schoeni A., Roser K., Röösli M. (2015) Memory performance, wireless communication and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: a prospective cohort study in adolescents. Environmental International. Volume 85. Page 343-351.

Highlights

• This is a prospective cohort study with approx. one year of follow-up.
• Self-reported and operator recorded mobile phone use data were collected.
• The cumulative RF-EMF dose for the brain and for the whole body was calculated.
• Associations were stronger for RF-EMF dose than for use of wireless devices.
• RF-EMF exposure might impair memory performance in adolescents.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate whether memory performance in adolescents is affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from wireless device use or by the wireless device use itself due to non-radiation related factors in that context.

METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study with 439 adolescents. Verbal and figural memory tasks at baseline and after one year were completed using a standardized, computerized cognitive test battery. Use of wireless devices was inquired by questionnaire and operator recorded mobile phone use data was obtained for a subgroup of 234 adolescents. RF-EMF dose measures considering various factors affecting RF-EMF exposure were computed for the brain and the whole body. Data were analysed using a longitudinal approach, to investigate whether cumulative exposure over one year was related to changes in memory performance. All analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders.

RESULTS: The kappa coefficients between cumulative mobile phone call duration and RF-EMF brain and whole body dose were 0.62 and 0.67, respectively for the whole sample and 0.48 and 0.28, respectively for the sample with operator data. In linear exposure-response models an interquartile increase in cumulative operator recorded mobile phone call duration was associated with a decrease in figural memory performance score by -0.15 (95% CI: -0.33, 0.03) units. For cumulative RF-EMF brain and whole body dose corresponding decreases in figural memory scores were -0.26 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.10) and -0.40 (95% CI: -0.79, -0.01), respectively. No exposure-response associations were observed for sending text messages and duration of gaming, which produces tiny RF-EMF emissions.

CONCLUSIONS: A change in memory performance over one year was negatively associated with cumulative duration of wireless phone use and more strongly with RF-EMF dose. This may indicate that RF-EMF exposure affects memory performance.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412015300659?via%3Dihub

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Occupational exposure to high-frequency EMF and brain tumor risk in INTEROCC study

Vila J, Turner MC, Gracia-Lavedan E, Figuerola J, Bowman JD, Kincl L, Richardson L, Benke G, Hours M, Krewski D, McLean D, Parent ME, Sadetzki S, Schlaefer K, Schlehofer B, Schüz J, Siemiatycki J, van Tongeren M, Cardis E, INTEROCC Study Group.Occupational exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields and brain tumor risk in the INTEROCC study: An individualized assessment approach. Environ Int. 2018 Jul 8;119:353-365. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.06.038.

Introduction: In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B), although the epidemiological evidence for the association between occupational exposure to RF-EMF and cancer was judged to be inadequate, due in part to limitations in exposure assessment. This study examines the relation between occupational RF and intermediate frequency (IF) EMF exposure and brain tumor (glioma and meningioma) risk in the INTEROCC multinational population-based case-control study (with nearly 4000 cases and over 5000 controls), using a novel exposure assessment approach.

Methods: Individual indices of cumulative exposure to RF and IF-EMF (overall and in specific exposure time windows) were assigned to study participants using a source-exposure matrix and detailed interview data on work with or nearby EMF sources. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate associations with glioma and meningioma risk.

Results: Overall, around 10% of study participants were exposed to RF while only 1% were exposed to IF-EMF. There was no clear evidence for a positive association between RF or IF-EMF and the brain tumors studied, with most results showing either no association or odds ratios (ORs) below 1.0. The largest adjusted ORs were obtained for cumulative exposure to RF magnetic fields (as A/m-years) in the highest exposed category (≥90th percentile) for the most recent exposure time window (1-4 years before the diagnosis or reference date) for both glioma, OR = 1.62 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 3.01) and meningioma (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 0.65, 3.55).

Conclusion: Despite the improved exposure assessment approach used in this study, no clear associations were identified. However, the results obtained for recent exposure to RF electric and magnetic fields are suggestive of a potential role in brain tumor promotion/progression and should be further investigated.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29996112


Excerpt

In conclusion, despite the improved quantitative exposure assessment used in this study, the results do not support a positive association between occupational exposure to high-frequency EMF and either glioma or meningioma risk. However, given our limited statistical power, due to the small number of exposed participants, and despite our results´ lack of significance (Greenland et al., 2016; Rothman, 2016; Smith and Kriebel, 2010), our findings foster the need for further research focusing on RF magnetic fields and tumor promotion, as well as possible interactions with other frequencies and with chemicals. Moreover, since most RF studies until now have focused on the effects of electric fields, more studies of RF magnetic fields are needed, particularly looking at differences between near-field (e.g. walkie-talkies) and far-field exposures (e.g. radars). Furthermore, the development of biology-based dose metrics which take into account both electric and magnetic fields from various sources (Hansson Mild and Mattson, 2017) may provide further insights on the potential biophysical mechanism(s), other than heating and nerve electro-stimulation (ICNIRP, 1998; IEEE, 2006), by which long-term exposure to high-frequency EMF may damage health.

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"Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields: Two sides of a coin".

Saliev T, Begimbetova D, Masoud AR, Matkarimov B. "Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields: Two sides of a coin.". Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2018 Jul 17. pii: S0079-6107(18)30100-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2018.07.009.

Abstract

Controversial, sensational and often contradictory scientific reports have triggered active debates over the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in literature and mass media the last few decades. This could lead to confusion and distraction, subsequently hampering the development of a univocal conclusion on the real hazards caused by EMFs on humans. For example, there are lots of publications indicating that EMF can induce apoptosis and DNA strand-breaks in cells. On the other hand, these effects could rather be beneficial, in that they could be effectively harnessed for treatment of various disorders, including cancer. This review discusses and analyzes the results of various in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies on the effects of non-ionizing EMFs on cells and organs, including the consequences of exposure to the low and high frequencies EM spectrum. Emphasis is laid on the analysis of recent data on the role of EMF in the induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Additionally, the impact of EMF on the reproductive system has been discussed, as well as the relationship between EM radiation and blood cancer. Apart from adverse effects, the therapeutic potential of EMFs for clinical use in different pathologies is also highlighted.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30030071

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Effect of RF EMF from mobile phones on nickel release from orthodontic brackets: An in vitro study

Seyed Mohammad S, Mortazavi J, Paknahad M, Khaleghi I, Eghlidospour M. Effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFS) from mobile phones on nickel release from orthodontic brackets: An in vitro study. International Orthodontics, Available online 12 July 2018.

Summary

Background The worldwide dramatic increase in the use of cell phones has generated great concerns about their potential adverse health effects.

Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted from mobile phones on the level of nickel release from orthodontic brackets.

Methods Twenty stainless steel brackets were divided randomly into experimental and control groups (n = 10). Brackets were immersed in artificial saliva at 37 °C for 6 months. Experimental group were exposed to GSM 900 MHz RF-EMFs emitted from a mobile phone stimulator for 4 hours. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was 2.287 W/kg. The concentration of nickel in the artificial saliva in both groups was evaluated by using the cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The Mann-Whitney test was used to assess significant differences in nickel release between the exposed and non-exposed groups.

Results The mean nickel levels in the exposed and non-exposed groups were 11.95 and 2.89 μg/l, respectively. This difference between the concentrations of nickel in the artificial saliva of these groups was statistically significant (P = 0.001).

Conclusion Exposure to RF-EMFs emitted from mobile phones can lead to human exposure to higher levels of nickel in saliva in patients with orthodontic appliances. As nickel exposure can lead to allergic reaction in humans and considering this point that about 10–20% of the population can be hypersensitive to nickel, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted from common devices such as mobile phones or Wi-Fi routers on the level of nickel release from orthodontic brackets.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1761722718300962?via%3Dihub

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Mobile phone chips reduce increases in EEG brain activity induced by mobile phone EMF

Henz D, Schöllhorn WI, Poeggeler B. Mobile Phone Chips Reduce Increases in EEG Brain Activity Induced by Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields. Front Neurosci. 2018 Apr 4;12:190. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00190.

Abstract

Recent neurophysiological studies indicate that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation can exert effects on brain activity. One technical solution to reduce effects of EMFs in mobile phone use is provided in mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones or attached to their surfaces. To date, there are no systematical studies on the effects of mobile phone chip application on brain activity and the underlying neural mechanisms. The present study investigated whether mobile phone chips that are applied to mobile phones reduce effects of EMFs emitted by mobile phone radiation on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity in a laboratory study. Thirty participants volunteered in the present study. Experimental conditions (mobile phone chip, placebo chip, no chip) were set up in a randomized within-subjects design. Spontaneous EEG was recorded before and after mobile phone exposure for two 2-min sequences at resting conditions. During mobile phone exposure, spontaneous EEG was recorded for 30 min during resting conditions, and 5 min during performance of an attention test (d2-R). Results showed increased activity in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands during EMF exposure in the placebo and no chip conditions. Application of the mobile phone chip reduced effects of EMFs on EEG brain activity and attentional performance significantly. Attentional performance level was maintained regarding number of edited characters. Further, a dipole analysis revealed different underlying activation patterns in the chip condition compared to the placebo chip and no chip conditions. Finally, a correlational analysis for the EEG frequency bands and electromagnetic high-frequency (HF) emission showed significant correlations in the placebo chip and no chip condition for the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. In the chip condition, a significant correlation of HF with the theta and alpha bands, but not with the beta and gamma bands was shown. We hypothesize that a reduction of EEG beta and gamma activation constitutes the key neural mechanism in mobile phone chip use that supports the brain to a degree in maintaining its natural activity and performance level during mobile phone use.

Conclusion

The findings of this study are mainly in line with previous studies to date in the field of neuroscience investigating the effects of EMF exposure from mobile phone use on brain activity. Increases in EEG activations were obtained by exposure to EMFs from mobile phone in all tested frequency bands. A reduction of these EMF induced activations is observed when a mobile phone chip is applied, particularly in the high-frequency ranges (beta and gamma bands). The observation is made both in resting as well as in working conditions. A deeper analysis of the EEG signals indicates that when applying the mobile phone chip less activation sources are found in the brain when exposed to mobile phone-emitted EMFs compared to the experimental conditions when a placebo chip is applied, or when no chip is applied. The findings of this study encourage further investigations on the long-term effects of mobile phone chip use in mobile phones in working settings as beneficial effects are shown for the short-term use of mobile phone chips on brain activity.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5893900/
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Extremely High Frequency EMF Facilitate Electrical Signal Propagation by Increasing Transmembrane Potassium Efflux in Artificial Axon Model

D'Agostino S, Della Monica C, Palizzi E, Di Pietrantonio F, Benetti M, Cannatà D, Cavagnaro M, Sardari D, Stano P, Ramundo-Orlando A. Extremely High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Facilitate Electrical Signal Propagation by Increasing Transmembrane Potassium Efflux in an Artificial Axon Model. Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 18;8(1):9299. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27630-8.

Abstract

Among the many biological effects caused by low intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields (EHF-EMF) reported in the literature, those on the nervous system are a promising area for further research. The mechanisms by which these fields alter neural activity are still unclear and thus far there appears to be no frequency dependence regarding neuronal responses. Therefore, proper in vitro models for preliminary screening studies of the interaction between neural cells with EMF are needed. We designed an artificial axon model consisting of a series of parallel RC networks. Each RC network contained an aqueous solution of lipid vesicles with a gradient of potassium (K+) concentration as the functional element. We investigated the effects of EHF-EMF (53.37 GHz-39 mW) on the propagation of the electric impulse. We report that exposure to the EHF-EMF increases the amplitude of electrical signal by inducing a potassium efflux from lipid vesicles. Further, exposure to the EHF-EMF potentiates the action of valinomycin - a K+ carrier - increasing the extent of K+ transport across the lipid membrane. We conclude that exposure to the EHF-EMF facilitates the electrical signal propagation by increasing transmembrane potassium efflux, and that the model presented is promising for future screening studies of different EMF frequency spectrum bands.

Open access paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27630-8

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Wi-Fi radiation (2.4 GHz) causes impaired insulin secretion and increased oxidative stress in rat pancreatic islets

Masoumi A, Karbalaei N, Mortazavi SMJ, Shabani M. Radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) causes impaired insulin secretion and increased oxidative stress in rat pancreatic islets.Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Jun 18:1-20. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1490039.

Abstract

PURPOSE: There is a great concern regarding the possible adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). This study investigated the effects of EMR induced by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) on insulin secretion and antioxidant redox systems in the rat pancreas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the weight range of 230 to 260 g were divided into control, sham, Wi-Fi exposed groups. After long term exposure (4 h/day for 45 days) to Wi-Fi electromagnetic radiation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were measured. Islet insulin secretion and content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in pancreas of rats were determined.

RESULTS: Our data showed that the weight gain in the WI-FI exposed group was significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05). Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposed group showed hyperglycemia. Plasma insulin level and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islet were significantly reduced in the Wi-Fi exposed group. EMR emitted from Wi-Fi caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in GSH level, SOD and GPx activities of the pancreas.

CONCLUSION: these data showed that EMR of Wi-Fi leads to hyperglycemia, increased oxidative stress and impaired insulin secretion in the rat pancreatic islets.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29913098

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2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial dysfunction & activation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in rats

Gupta SK, Mesharam MK, Krishnamurthy S. Electromagnetic radiation 2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in rats. J Biosci. 2018 Jun;43(2):263-276.

Abstract

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) can induce or modulate several neurobehavioral disorders. Duration and frequency of exposure of EMR is critical to develop cognitive disorders. Even though EMR-2450 is widely used, its effects on cognition in relation to mitochondrial function and apoptosis would provide better understanding of its pathophysiological effects. Therefore, a comparative study of different frequencies of EMR exposure would give valuable information on effects of discrete frequencies of EMR on cognition. Male rats were exposed to EMR (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz) every day for 1 h for 28 consecutive days. The cognitive behavior in terms of novel arm entries in Y-maze paradigm was evaluated every week after 1 h to last EMR exposure. Animals exposed to EMR-2450 MHz exhibited significant cognitive deficits. EMR- 2450 MHz caused loss of mitochondrial function and integrity, an increase in amyloid beta expression. There was release of cytochrome-c and activation of apoptotic factors such as caspase-9 and -3 in the hippocampus. Further, there was decrease in levels of acetylcholine, and increase in activity of acetyl cholinesterase, indicating impairment of cholinergic system. Therefore, exposure of EMR-2450 in rats caused cognitive deficit with related pathophysiological changes in mitochondrial and cholinergic function, and amyloidogenesis.

Excerpts

The animals after being exposed to 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz EMR, the average power density was found to be 0.1227 W/m2. While the overall value of whole body average SAR was found to be approximately, 0.0227, 0.030 and 0.0616 W/kg for 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz respectively.

Experimental rats (n=6) were subjected to continuous modulated electromagnetic radiation exposure of 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz (for modulation: modulating signal 217 Hz, modulation index 0.1%), for daily 1 h for each group for 28 days between 10.00 AM to 1.00 PM. Control group was placed in anechoic chamber without any exposure.

In summary, EMR at 2450 MHz induced cognitive behavioral deficit with concomitant loss in mitochondrial function. Alteration in the activity of mitochondrial complex enzyme systems caused oxidative stress and decrease in MMP, which ultimately lead to loss of mitochondrial integrity. Further, mitochondrial stress as observed from increasesin cytochrome-c activated the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3, indicating mitochondrial-linked apoptosis. Furthermore, exposure with EMR-2450 increased expression of hippocampal Ab and decreased cholinergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus, which are considered to be important factors for development of cognitive dysfunction.

Open access paper: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/043/02/0263-0276

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Aloe prevents EMF-induced oxidative stress and protects male reproductive system in vitro

Solek P, Majchrowicz L, Koziorowski M. Aloe arborescens juice prevents EMF-induced oxidative stress and thus protects from pathophysiology in the male reproductive system in vitro. Environ Res. 2018 Jun 7;166:141-149.

Abstract

More and more studies suggest that prolonged exposure to EMF may cause adverse biological effects and point directly to a significantly negative correlation between EMF and human health, especially men fertility. In our previous study, we reported that this could be related to the EMF-induced reactive oxygen species formation, followed by DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. In this study, we decided to expand our research by the search for substances which would prevent EMF-induced damage in spermatogenic cells. Such an agent seems to be Aloe arborescens Mill. juice, which was shown to possess a wide range of protective properties. The administration of aloe extract helps among others to prevent the formation of free radicals by various biochemical pathways. Therefore, the main aim of our study was to provide a significant knowledge concerning the mechanism involved in the multi-pathway cytoprotective response of aloe juice against EMF. The study was carried out in an in vitro mouse spermatogenesis pathway cell lines (GC-1 spg and GC-2 spd). Our results suggest that the aloe juice has many positive effects, especially for the cellular antioxidant systems by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species pool induced by EMF. In consequence, aloe juice prevents DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and therefore the viability and metabolic activity of both cell line tested are preserved. In conclusion, our study provides new insight into the underlying mechanisms through which aloe juice prevents spermatogenic cells from cytotoxic and genotoxic events.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29886390

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Understanding effects of EMF emissions from Marine Renewable Energy Devices on commercially important edible crab

Scott K, Harsanyi P, Lyndon AR. Understanding the effects of electromagnetic field emissions from Marine Renewable Energy Devices (MREDs) on the commercially important edible crab, Cancer pagurus (L.). Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Jun;131(Pt A):580-588.

Abstract

The effects of simulated electromagnetic fields (EMF), emitted from sub-sea power cables, on the commercially important decapod, edible crab (Cancer pagurus), were assessed. Stress related parameters were measured (l-Lactate, d-Glucose, Haemocyanin and respiration rate) along with behavioural and response parameters (antennular flicking, activity level, attraction/avoidance, shelter preference and time spent resting/roaming) during 24-h periods. Exposure to EMF had no effect on Haemocyanin concentrations, respiration rate, activity level or antennular flicking rate. EMF exposure significantly disrupted haemolymph l-Lactate and d-Glucose natural circadian rhythms. Crabs showed a clear attraction to EMF exposed shelter (69%) compared to control shelter (9%) and significantly reduced their time spent roaming by 21%. Consequently, EMF emitted from Marine Renewable Energy Devices (MREDs) will likely affect edible crabs both behaviourally and physiologically, suggesting that the impact of EMF on crustaceans must be considered when planning MREDs.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29886985

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Duration-dependent effect of exposure to static electric field on learning and memory ability in mice

Xu Y, Gu X, Di G. Duration-dependent effect of exposure to static electric field on learning and memory ability in mice.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Jun 7.

Abstract

With the rapid development of ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) transmission, the strength of environmental static electric field (SEF) around UHVDC transmission lines increased substantially, which has aroused widely public attention on the potential health effects of SEF. In this study, the effect of SEF exposure on learning and memory ability was investigated. Institute of Cancer Research mice were exposed to 56.3 kV/m SEF for a short term (7 days) or long term (49 days). Behaviors in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, hippocampal neurotransmitter contents, and oxidative stress indicators were examined. Results showed that short-term SEF exposure significantly prolonged escape latency and decreased the number of platform-site crossovers, as well as decreased the time spent in the target quadrant in the MWM test. Meanwhile, serotonin level and the ratio of glutamate level to γ-aminobutyric acid level changed significantly. Besides, malondialdehyde content and glutathione peroxidase activity increased significantly, while superoxide dismutase activity decreased significantly. After long-term SEF exposure, all indices above showed no significant differences between the SEF and sham exposure groups. These data indicated that short-term exposure to 56.3 kV/m SEF could cause abnormal neurotransmitter levels and oxidative stress in the hippocampus, which led to the decline in learning and memory ability. Under the condition of long-term exposure, the SEF-induced disturbances in neurotransmitter contents and redox balance were offset by the compensatory responses of mice, and thus, the learning and memory ability returned to normal level. The temporary and reversible decline in learning and memory ability was only a common biological effect of SEF rather than a health hazard.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29881961

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Gating currents

Bezanilla F. Gating currents. J Gen Physiol. 2018 Jun 25. pii: jgp.201812090. doi: 10.1085/jgp.201812090.

Abstract

Many membrane proteins sense the voltage across the membrane where they are inserted, and their function is affected by voltage changes. The voltage sensor consists of charges or dipoles that move in response to changes in the electric field, and their movement produces an electric current that has been called gating current. In the case of voltage-gated ion channels, the kinetic and steady-state properties of the gating charges provide information of conformational changes between closed states that are not visible when observing ionic currents only. In this Journal of General Physiology Milestone, the basic principles of voltage sensing and gating currents are presented, followed by a historical description of the recording of gating currents. The results of gating current recordings are then discussed in the context of structural changes in voltage-dependent membrane proteins and how these studies have provided new insights on gating mechanisms.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29941430

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Solutions for EM exposure assessment of 5G wireless devices

Douglas MG, Pfeifer S, Kuehn S, Neufeld E, Pokovic K, et al. Solutions for EM exposure assessment of 5G wireless devices. IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and 2018 IEEE Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC/APEMC), 2018. IEEE, 2018, ISBN 9781509039555: 92-94. doi:10.1109/ISEMC.2018.8394066

Abstract

A novel measurement system and a 3D field reconstruction method are described for determining the power density in the close near field of wireless devices transmitting at frequencies from 6–110 GHz. Measurements are compared against simulated results. The accuracy is better than 0.5 dB for distances greater than λ/5 from the radiating source.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8394066/

Excerpts

Fifth generation wireless communication systems enable mobile devices to transmit at millimeter wave frequencies. For electromagnetic (EM) exposure assessment, this poses a challenge for wireless device manufacturers and regulatory agencies. At frequencies above 10 GHz, ICNIRP [1] defines limits on power density, which is measured in air at the location of the body. Power density is not correlated with the induced fields in the body. Moreover, it is poorly defined at very close distances of the source to the body because the electric and magnetic fields are not orthogonal and because the body interacts with the reactive near field. In the far field, power density is only a surrogate for induced exposure. On the other hand, power density is easier to measure than induced field, which is concentrated at the skin surface [2]. Therefore, reliable equipment is needed to measure the power density of millimeter wave devices. Another problem is that the prescribed averaging area can be too large compared to the exposed area and is inconsistent between different standards [3].

A novel measurement system and field reconstruction algorithm are presented that enable power density to be measured with an accuracy better than 0.5 dB for distances greater than lambda/5 from the radiating source.

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Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: https://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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