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12 September 2018

Fifteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (11 September 2018)

Fifteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 11 September 2018

Dr. Moscowitz has been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since August, 2016. Since he has received numerous requests to post the abstracts on his EMR Safety website, he has compiled the collection into a document which now contains more than 400 abstracts (including the papers below).

To see the latest studies or download the document go to the following web page:



Recent Papers

Diplomats' mystery illness and pulsed radiofrequency/microwave radiation

Golomb B. Diplomats' mystery illness and pulsed radiofrequency/microwave radiation. Neural Comput. 2018 Sep 5. doi: 10.1162/neco_a_01133.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: A "mystery" illness striking US and Canadian diplomats to Cuba (and now China) "has confounded the FBI, the State Department and US intelligence agencies." Sonic explanations for the so-called "health attacks" have long dominated media reports, propelled by peculiar sounds heard and auditory symptoms experienced. Sonic mediation was justly rejected by experts. We assessed whether pulsed radiofrequency/microwave radiation (RF/MW) exposure can accommodate reported facts in diplomats, including unusual ones.

OBSERVATIONS: 1. Noises: Chirping, ringing or grinding noises were heard at night, during episodes reportedly triggering health problems, by many diplomats. Pulsed RF/MW engenders just these "sounds" via the "Frey effect." Ability to hear the sounds depends on high frequency hearing and low ambient noise. "Sounds" differ by head dimensions. 2. Signs/symptoms: Hearing loss and tinnitus are prominent in affected diplomats - and in RF/MW-affected individuals. Each of protean symptoms that diplomats report, also affect persons reporting symptoms from RF/MW: Sleep problems, headaches, and cognitive problems dominate in both groups. Sensations of pressure or vibration figure in each. Both encompass vision, balance and speech problems, and nosebleeds. Brain injury and brain swelling are reported in both. 3. Mechanisms: Oxidative stress provides a documented mechanism of RF/MW injury compatible with reported signs and symptoms; sequelae of endothelial dysfunction (yielding blood flow compromise), membrane damage, blood brain barrier disruption, mitochondrial injury, apoptosis, and autoimmune triggering afford downstream mechanisms, of varying persistence, that merit investigation. 4. Of note, microwaving of the US embassy in Moscow is historically documented.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Reported facts appear consistent with RF/MW as the source of injury in Cuba diplomats. Non-diplomats citing symptoms from RF/MW, often with an inciting pulsed-RF/MW exposure, report compatible health conditions. Under the RF/MW hypothesis, lessons learned for diplomats and for RF/MW-affected "civilians" may each aid the other.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30183509

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Selected Health and Law Issues Regarding Mobile Communications with Respect to 5G

Mandl P, Pezzei P, Leitgeb E. Selected Health and Law Issues Regarding Mobile Communications with Respect to 5G. Presented at 2018 International Conference on Broadband Communications for Next Generation Networks and Multimedia Applications (CoBCom). Graz, Austria. July 11-13, 2018.

Abstract

Over the next years the demand of wireless communication will increase tremendously. More and more mobile end devices require a high data rate connection e.g. to a smart home (Internet of Things, IoT) or to the internet. The radiation power pattern of base stations and mobile end devices will completely change for the 5G Next Generation Mobile Network technology which will use frequency bands up to 100 GHz. Therefore the electromagnetic exposure especially to human body will increase in the future, because most of the wireless connections are realized in RF technology. In this contribution two different measurement setups are presented. The first shows the electromagnetic radiation regarding a base station powered by a mobile phone provider over a timespan of a number of days. The second figures out the electromagnetic radiation of a handheld mobile end device to a human head in an area with very poor reception values. The results of those measurements where compared with legal and health limits. All measured and calculated results regarding the base stations were within the legal exposure limits. The calculated legal exposure limits of mobile devices were exceeded twice in areas within very poor reception values. Regarding the expected higher bandwidth and corresponding higher electromagnetic exposure to human bodies in future there have to be periodic measurements to comply with radiation limits.

Conclusions

It has been shown that there is currently no overshooting of legal limits in the transmission of base stations. The presented measurement campaign regarding the base station showed that the E-Field reached a maximum of 0.673 V/m (legal limit: 47.631 V/m) and the H-Field a maximum of 2 mA/m (legal limit: 128 mA/m). However, the coming mobile radio standards like 5G is expected to use frequency bands up to 100 GHz, a much higher density of base stations and 100 times higher bandwidths than nowadays which subsequently causes higher transmission power of base stations. Regarding the above mentioned circumstances it will be necessary to measure the radiation exposure of base stations in the future on a regular basis in order to ensure the legal limits and to reduce possible health hazards. It also will be necessary to develop new measurement strategies and/or technologies regarding the large frequency spectrum 5G will use up to 100 GHz.

When measuring directly on a mobile phone (simulating the use of an end device directly on the human head), it was found that the calculated SAR of 3.834 W/kg exceeds the legal limit of 2 W/ kg. This shows clearly that the legal limit values can be exceeded significantly in areas with very poor reception values ...

Increasing the distance between a mobile end device and the head, e.g. by using a hands-free set or a headset can significantly reduce the human exposure to electromagnetic radiation when such a device is used in badly supplied areas and transmits with maximum power.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8443980/

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Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102)

Miller AB, Morgan LL, Udasin I, Davis DL. Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102). Available online Sep 6, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.043

Highlights

• Increased risk of brain, vestibular nerve and salivary gland tumors are associated with mobile phone use.
• Nine studies (2011–2017) report increased risk of brain cancer from mobile phone use.
• Four case-control studies (3 in 2013, 1 in 2014) report increased risk of vestibular nerve tumors.
• Concern for other cancers: breast (male & female), testis, leukemia, and thyroid.
• Based on the evidence reviewed it is our opinion that IARC's current categorization of RFR as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) should be upgraded to Carcinogenic to Humans (Group 1).

Abstract

Epidemiology studies (case-control, cohort, time trend and case studies) published since the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2011 categorization of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phones and other wireless devices as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) are reviewed and summarized. Glioma is an important human cancer found to be associated with RFR in 9 case-control studies conducted in Sweden and France, as well as in some other countries. Increasing glioma incidence trends have been reported in the UK and other countries. Non-malignant endpoints linked include acoustic neuroma (vestibular Schwannoma) and meningioma. Because they allow more detailed consideration of exposure, case-control studies can be superior to cohort studies or other methods in evaluating potential risks for brain cancer. When considered with recent animal experimental evidence, the recent epidemiological studies strengthen and support the conclusion that RFR should be categorized as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1). Opportunistic epidemiological studies are proposed that can be carried out through cross-sectional analyses of high, medium, and low mobile phone users with respect to hearing, vision, memory, reaction time, and other indicators that can easily be assessed through standardized computer-based tests. As exposure data are not uniformly available, billing records should be used whenever available to corroborate reported exposures.

Synthesis and conclusions

The Epidemiological studies reported since the 2011 IARC Working Group meeting are adequate to consider RFR as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2 A). However, they must be supplemented with the recently reported animal data as performed at the Ramazzini Institute and the US National Toxicology Program as well as by mechanistic studies. These experimental findings together with the epidemiology reviewed here are sufficient in our opinion, to upgrade the IARC categorization of RFR to Group 1, carcinogenic to humans.

It would be useful to know more about the association of additional tumor types such as parotid gland, testicular, breast, hematopoietic malignancies and multiple primaries with RFR. Case studies should continue to be conducted in the absence of a better exposure assessment system to increase awareness and understand the relationship between exposure to RFR and disease causation, as well as trial-error experiments and interventions.

In light of the evolving science concerning mobile phone and screen time exposures and the longer-term risk of cancer established by both epidemiological and toxicological studies, current evidence is strong enough to go from precaution concerning possible risk to prevention of known risks. Although the benefits of connectivity are extremely important, safety considerations demand reconciling use of information vs. risk of perceived rare outcomes. Thus, a concerted program of public and health professional education should be undertaken throughout society explaining current knowledge and devising policies to promote safer technology in partnership with designers of software and hardware. In addition, methods should be developed and validated to reduce exposures in schools, workplaces, hospitals and other workplaces. The precautionary principle should be applied now and suitable warning messages provided to adults and critically to children and their parents. Until technology has been devised that substantially lowers exposures, special efforts should be advanced to ensure that the exposures of children are limited to those deemed essential. Children should be encouraged to text to reduce their exposure to RFR, while every attempt should be made to reduce exposure to RFR in schools, as well as homes.

Research has so far been performed on technologies that have already been introduced, but is critically needed on new, untested technology prior to its use. Epidemiological studies necessarily confirm the impact of past exposures, while experimental studies provide indications of future risk. Thus, experimental evaluations and modeling are essential before distributing newer systems (e.g. 5 G) for which no safety data have been obtained. The absence of systematic testing of such technologies should not be confused with proof of safety. Better modeling through anatomically based systems, such as the Virtual Family, should be encouraged.

In the meantime, the evidence amassed thus far from epidemiology strengthens the case for instituting the precautionary principle with respect to exposures to RFR, especially to young children and men and women that wish to reproduce. The lack of detailed studies at this point reflects a myopic attitude toward the technology that may well prove to be wishful and dangerous thinking. Where studies have been carried out on human sperm quantity and quality there are increasing indications of serious human health impacts. To ignore those findings and subject humans to unevaluated novel RFR frequencies places current and future generations at risk.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935118303475

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Clear evidence of cell-phone RF radiation cancer risk

Lin JC. Clear evidence of cell-phone RF radiation cancer risk. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 19(6):16-24. Sep/Oct 2018. DOI: 10.1109/MMM.2018.2844058.

Abstract

During 26-28 March 2018, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP), a part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, convened a three-day technical reports peer-review panel meeting in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to review the NTP's draft reports on its carcinogenesis studies of cell-phone RF radiation in mice and rats.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8425056/

A summary and excerpts from the paper: http://bit.ly/NTPcellphonestudies

In a new paper, “Clear evidence of cell-phone RF radiation cancer risk” published in the journal IEEE Microwave Magazine, Dr. James C. Lin states that the results of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) cell phone radiation study suggest that current radio frequency (RF) exposure guidelines are inadequate to protect human health (1). Furthermore, the paper recommends that the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) re-assess the research and consider upgrading the classification of RF radiation from "possibly carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2B) to probably carcinogenic (i.e., Group 2A).

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Peer Review of the Draft NTP Technical Reports on Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation

National Toxicology Program (NTP). Peer Review of the Draft NTP Technical Reports on Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2018. pp. 1-51.

No abstract.

Open access paper: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/about_ntp/trpanel/2018/march/peerreview20180328_508.pdf

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Editorial: Effects of Combined EMF Exposures and Co-exposures

Mattsson M-O, Zeni O, Simkó M, Scarfì MR.Editorial: Effects of Combined EMF Exposures and Co-exposures. Frontiers in Public Health. 20 August 2018. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00230.

No Abstract

Excerpt

The very complex exposure situation in real-life environments has been well illustrated in this Research Topic, and the need for better understanding of basic biological interaction mechanisms is obvious from the analyses presented here. The area is very much under-investigated, and the full impact and potential of EMF exposures for both possible adverse and beneficial effects cannot be realized without substantial additional research efforts.

Open access: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00230/full

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Effects of mobile phone exposure on biochemical parameters of cord blood: A preliminary study

Bektas H, Bektas MS, Dasdag S. Effects of mobile phone exposure on biochemical parameters of cord blood: A preliminary study. Electromagn Biol Med. 2018 Aug 29:1-8. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2018.1499033.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate foetal impact of radiofrequencies (RFs) emitted from mobile phones in postnatal cord blood. The study carried on 149 pregnant women divided into four groups such as nonusers of mobile phone (n: 37; control group), 2-15 min/d (n: 39; group 1), 15-60 min/d (n: 37; group 2) and participants using mobile phone for more than 60 min/d (n: 36; group 3). Cord blood of the infants was taken in all groups for biochemical analyses immediately after birth. The results of the study showed that the biggest foetal impact was observed in the third study group which was pregnant exposed RFRs (RF radiation) more than 1 h/d (1 hour per day). AST (aspartat aminotransferaz), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase), CK-MB (creatine kinase-miyocardial band), CRP (c-reactive protein), PCT (procalcitonin), TnT (troponin T), uric acid and lactate levels of third group were found higher than the other groups (p < 0.001). However, Mean platelet volume values of third group were found lower than the other groups (p < 0.001). Finally, this is the first human study which was performed on pregnant and infants because there is no previous work in this area. However, the results of this study revealed that long-term RFR exposure of pregnant may result in some biochemical changes in the infants. Therefore, our suggestion to pregnant is to avoid from RFR exposure emitted from mobile phones at least during pregnancy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30156944

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Comments regarding: "Occupational exposure to high-frequency EMF & brain tumor risk in INTEROCC study: An individualized assessment approach"

Mortazavi SMJ. Comments regarding: "Occupational exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields and brain tumor risk in the INTEROCC study: An individualized assessment approach". Environ Int. 2018 Aug 24. pii: S0160-4120(18)31561-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.008.

Abstract

This commentary addresses the paper by Vila et al. entitled "Occupational exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields and brain tumor risk in the INTEROCC study: An individualized assessment approach" that is published in Environment International. The authors have examined the link between occupational exposures to radiofrequency (RF) and intermediate frequency (IF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and glioma and meningioma brain tumor risk in the INTEROCC multinational population-based case-control study. This study showed no clear association with exposure to RF or IF EMFs and the risk of glioma or meningioma brain tumors. Recent studies show that in many cases there are large errors and/or major shortcomings in the studies claiming no link between mobile phone and brain cancer. Although the paper by Vila et al. is well-structured and can be considered as a significant contribution to this field, there are several items that merit further attention and are not fully addressed. These include the selection bias, confounding factors other than age, sex, region and country, and criteria used in this study for considering exposures as occupational.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30146273

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Statistical approach for human EMF exposure assessment in future wireless ATTO-cell networks

Shikhantsov S, Thielens A, Vermeeren G, Demeester P, Martens L, Torfs G, Joseph W. Statistical approach for human electromagnetic exposure assessment in future wireless ATTO-cell networks. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2018 Jul 30. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncy120.

Abstract

In this article, we study human electromagnetic exposure to the radiation of an ultra dense network of nodes integrated in a floor denoted as ATTO-cell floor, or ATTO-floor. ATTO-cells are a prospective 5 G wireless networking technology, in which humans are exposed by several interfering sources. To numerically estimate this exposure we propose a statistical approach based on a set of finite difference time domain simulations. It accounts for variations of antenna phases and makes use of a large number of exposure evaluations, based on a relatively low number of required simulations. The exposure was expressed in peak-spatial 10-g SAR average (psSAR10g). The results show an average exposure level of ~4.9 mW/kg and reaching 7.6 mW/kg in 5% of cases. The maximum psSAR10g value found in the studied numerical setup equals around 21.2 mW/kg. Influence of the simulated ATTO-floor size on the resulting exposure was examined. All obtained exposure levels are far below 4 W/kg ICNIRP basic restriction for general public in limbs (and 20 W/kg basic restriction for occupational exposure), which makes ATTO-floor a potential low-exposure 5 G candidate.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30085262

Excerpt

The ATTO-floor is a new concept for ultra-high capacity wireless networking, designed to provide wireless access to robots that can freely move around the floor surface. ATTO-cells are integrated into the floor and cover its entire area. According to the current design(1) (Figure 1) an ATTO-cell has dimensions of 15-by-15 cm2 and an antenna is supplied with a maximum power of 1 mW. It operates at a center frequency of 3.5 GHz. Possible applications of the ATTO technology include industrial warehouses or factories of the future, where multitudes of mobile robots and human workers operate simultaneously. Robots, being equipped with an antenna featuring downward-pointing pattern, are the target users. Due to the provisioned fast handover system, at any time instance a robot is only connected to the closest antenna, thus, it is unlikely for humans to be exposed by the ATTO-floor directly. In other words, most of the time humans will be exposed to the scattered fields of antennas serving surrounding robots.

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Study of the Correlation between Outdoor and Indoor Electromagnetic Exposure near Cellular Base Stations in Leuven, Belgium

NkemIyare R, Volskiy V, Vandenbosch G. Study of the Correlation between Outdoor and Indoor Electromagnetic Exposure near Cellular Base Stations in Leuven, Belgium. Environmental Research. Publ online 22 Aug 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.08.025

Highlights

• GSM 900 is the dominating source of exposure
• Exposure levels meet international recommendations and local legislation
• In absolute levels the outdoor field exposure is ca. the double of the indoor field exposure
• EM exposure levels are reproducible over a time span of ca. one month

Abstract

A measuring campaign for the assessment of electromagnetic radiation near base stations in the city center of Leuven, Belgium, has been carried out. The main objective of this assessment is to study the correlation between the outdoor and the indoor exposure produced by cellular base stations and to investigate the changes of electromagnetic exposure within a typical day and over 1 month in the vicinity of these base stations. The study was also carried out as a function of location and time using highly precise measurement equipment. The measurements were performed in both public and private areas in sixty (30 indoor and 30 outdoor) different locations in Leuven. The measurement was focused on mobile communication networks: GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication, 900 MHz and 1800 MHz) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, 2110 MHz) were the frequency bands of interest. The data at these frequencies were extracted from raw measurements in the 824 MHz to 2170 MHz frequency band. The results show that all analyzed locations are in compliance with the exposure limits recommended by ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) and that the (maximum) indoor exposure correlates to the outdoor exposure with a factor of about 0.5.

Conclusions

The electromagnetic radiation exposure of the general public generated by base stations in Leuven, Belgium, was duly assessed using spectrum analyzer measurements at 60 locations and at several moments during the day. All measured values are considerably below norm levels for Flanders, which means that they are far below the ICNIRP exposure limits for the general public. The average levels over time and over the whole city center are: outdoors about 0.64 V/m for GSM 900, 0.53 for GSM 1800, and 0.33 for UMTS, and indoors about 0.32 V/m for GSM 900, 0.26 for GSM 1800, and 0.17 for UMTS. To the average, the outdoor exposure levels are thus a factor of two higher than the indoor levels. In general, the dominating source of exposure is GSM 900. The maximum field value measured was equal to 1.80 V/m, due to the GSM 900 signal. In this study, the average effect of absorption and reflection, typically used to explain the lower values indoors, is in agreement with the average attenuation through walls used in propagation models.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935118304651

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On the effects of glasses on the SAR in human head resulting from wireless eyewear devices at phone call stat

Lan JQ, Liang X, Hong T, Du GH. On the effects of glasses on the SAR in human head resulting from wireless eyewear devices at phone call state. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 136:29-36. Aug 2018.

Abstract

This paper evaluates the effects of glasses on the specific absorption rates (SAR) in the human head resulting from wireless eyewear device at phone call state. We mainly concentrate on the SAR in the eyes since their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). We find wearing glasses obviously alters the distribution and magnitude of the SAR. The maximal SAR in the ocular tissues with glasses is even 6 times more than that without glasses. Wearing glasses also induce the new hotspot in the eyes which may cause the biggest SAR increment in the ocular tissues. Moreover, calculated results indicate that the maximal SAR is sensitive to the size of glasses and radiation frequency. Because of this, we believe wearing glasses may possibly increase the risk of health hazard to eyes of wireless eyewear device user. These calculated results could be a valuable reference for the glasses designer to reduce the SAR in the eyes.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079610717300822

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Subjective symptoms, onset/trigger factors, allergic diseases, & exposures in Japanese patients with multiple chemical sensitivity

Hojo S, Mizukoshi A, Azuma K, Okumura J, Ishikawa S, Miyata M, Mizuki M, Ogura H, Sakabe K. Survey on changes in subjective symptoms, onset/trigger factors, allergic diseases, and chemical exposures in the past decade of Japanese patients with multiple chemical sensitivity. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Aug 13. pii: S1438-4639(18)30271-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.08.001.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recently, with rapid changes in the Japanese lifestyle, the clinical condition of patients with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) may also have undergone change. Thus, we conducted a new survey for subjective symptoms, ongoing chemical exposures, the prevalence of allergic diseases, and presumed onset/trigger factors in patients with MCS and compared results with those of an old survey from ten years ago.

METHODS: The new survey was conducted from 2012 to 2015 and the old survey was independently conducted from 1999 to 2003, meaning it was not a follow-up study. Patients were initially diagnosed by physicians at five medical institutions with MCS specialty outpatient services, with 111 and 103 patients participating in the new and old surveys, respectively. The controls were a general population living in Japan, with 1313 and 2382 participants in the new and old surveys, respectively. Subjective symptoms and ongoing chemical exposure were evaluated using a quick environmental exposure sensitivity inventory. Additionally, from clinical findings recorded by an attending physician, the prevalence of allergic diseases and presumed onset/trigger factors were evaluated. Differences between new and old surveys were analyzed using logistic regression analyses and significance tests.

RESULTS: Compared with ten years ago: (1) Regarding factors affecting patients with ongoing chemical exposures, the proportion of patients affected decreased significantly for two items only (insecticides and second-hand smoke). The proportion of controls showing ongoing exposure to 8 out of 10 items changed significantly. (2) In patients, scores for chemical intolerances, other intolerances, and life impacts increased significantly. (3) In terms of the prevalence of allergic diseases among patients with MCS, bronchial asthma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.19), atopic dermatitis (AOR: 3.77), allergic rhinitis (AOR: 5.34), and food allergies (AOR: 2.63) increased significantly, while hay fever (AOR: 0.38) and drug allergies (AOR: 0.40) decreased significantly. (4) With regard to construction and renovation, which was the presumed predominant onset/trigger factor for MCS 10 years ago, this decreased from 68.9% to 35.1%; in contrast, electromagnetic fields (0.0%-26.1%), perfume (0.0%-20.7%), and medical treatment (1.9%-7.2%) increased significantly, confirming the diversification of onset/trigger factors.

CONCLUSION: Compared to ten years ago, for patients with MCS, an increase in avoidance behavior toward chemical substance exposures, which were presumed to be aggravating factors for symptoms, was confirmed. It has been suggested that the ongoing chemical exposure of the general population in Japan has largely changed. In addition, for patients with MCS, chemical intolerances and life impacts have become severe, the prevalence of the main allergic diseases has increased, and onset/trigger factors have become diversified.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30115513

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Design and Calibration of a mm-Wave Personal Exposure Meter for 5G Exposure Assessment in Indoor Diffuse Environments

Aminzadeh R, Khadir Fall A, Sol J, Thielens A, Besnier P, Zhadobov M, De Geeter N, Vasudevan PP, Dupré L, Van Holen R, Martens L, Wout J.
Design and Calibration of a mm-Wave Personal Exposure Meter for 5G Exposure Assessment in Indoor Diffuse Environments. Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves. pp 1–19. Published Online: 23 August 2018.

Abstract

For the first time, a mm-wave personal exposure meter (mm-PEM) for the 5th generation of mobile networks (5G) exposure assessment in indoor diffuse fields is presented. The design is based on simulations and on-phantom calibration measurements in a mm-wave reverberation chamber (RC) at 60 GHz. The mm-PEM consists of an array of nine antennas on the body. Using the mm-PEM, the incident power density (IPD) is measured in the unloaded RC, for the antenna(s) on the phantom and RC loaded with phantom. The uncertainty of the mm-PEM is then determined in terms of its response, which is defined as the ratio of antenna aperture for the above measurement scenarios. Using nine antennas, the designed meter has a response of 1.043 (0.17 dB) at 60 GHz, which is very close to 1 (0 dB), the desired ideal response value. The mm-PEM measured an IPD of 96.6 W m− 2 at 60 GHz in the RC, for an input power of 1 W. In addition, the average absorption cross-section of the phantom is determined as 225 cm2, which is an excellent agreement with its physical dimensions.

Conclusion

A mm-wave personal exposure meter (mm-PEM) is designed for assessment of personal exposure to 5G in indoor diffuse environments. The mm-PEM is calibrated on a skin-equivalent phantom in a reverberation chamber (RC) in the range of 59.5 to 60.5 GHz. We showed that increasing the number of antennas up to nine, a response of 1.043 at 60 GHz is obtained. This response is very close to 1, which is the desired response of the mm-PEM; so, the mm-PEM can measure the IPD in free space but in the presence of human body. The response of the mm-PEM in diffuse fields is also determined in terms of numerical simulations using the FDTD. Good agreement between measurements and simulations is achieved. According to the results, we recommend to calibrate the mm-PEM in the loaded RC. The average absorption cross-section of the skin phantom is determined as 225 cm2 from the measurements, which is in excellent agreement with the physical geometry of the phantom. Future research includes design of acquisition nodes (antenna and receiver electronics) for the mm-PEM to measure the IPD directly. Additionally, the calibrations will be performed on a cylindrical or spherical phantom to study the effect of body shadowing on the response of the designed mm-PEM and to design a distributed exposure meter for the mm-waves. 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10762-018-0533-z

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The Effect of a Single 30-Min Long Term Evolution Mobile Phone-Like Exposure on Thermal Pain Threshold of Young Healthy Volunteers

Vecsei Z, Thuróczy G, Hernádi I. The Effect of a Single 30-Min Long Term Evolution Mobile Phone-Like Exposure on Thermal Pain Threshold of Young Healthy Volunteers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Aug 27;15(9). pii: E1849. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15091849.

Abstract

Although the majority of mobile phone (MP) users do not attribute adverse effects on health or well-being to MP-emitted radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), the exponential increase in the number of RF devices necessitates continuing research aimed at the objective investigation of such concerns. Here we investigated the effects of acute exposure from Long Term Evolution (LTE) MP EMFs on thermal pain threshold in healthy young adults. We use a protocol that was validated in a previous study in a capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia model and was also successfully used to show that exposure from an RF source mimicking a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) MP led to mildly stronger desensitization to repeated noxious thermal stimulation relative to the sham condition. Using the same experimental design, we did not find any effects of LTE exposure on thermal pain threshold. The present results, contrary to previous evidence obtained with the UMTS modulation, are likely to originate from placebo/nocebo effects and are unrelated to the brief acute LTE EMF exposure itself. The fact that this is dissimilar to our previous results on UMTS exposure implies that RF modulations might differentially affect pain perception and points to the necessity of further research on the topic.

Open access paper: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/9/1849
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Exposure levels of ELF magnetic fields in the residential areas of Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality

Rathebe P, Weyers C, Raphela F. Exposure levels of ELF magnetic fields in the residential areas of Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality.
Environ Monit Assess. 2018 Aug 23;190(9):544. doi: 10.1007/s10661-018-6916-8.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure levels of ELF magnetic fields in the residential areas of Mangaung metropolitan municipality. Fifteen residential sites were randomly selected in Bloemfontein, nine in Botshabelo and six in Thaba Nchu areas of Mangaung. Measurements were collected at the distances of 3 m, 6 m and 9 m outside electrical substations, near every corner, using a Trifield meter model XE 100. Measurements were also collected from four different corners inside substations, near barrier screening and were referred to as a distance of 0 m (reference point). The results indicated a non-significant difference among 15 residential areas; BRE1 to BRE15 and six areas; TNRE1 to TRNE6. The exposure levels were significantly high in one residential area BORE1 (0.55 μT) as compared to other residential sites in Botshabelo (p < 0.001). The results obtained from the measurements also show a significant difference between the residential areas BORE4 and BORE8 (p < 0.01) as well as BORE4 and BORE9 (p < 0.006). The four distance interims also demonstrated a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) when compared to one another. The t test showed a statistically significant difference for exposure levels recorded at 3 m, 6 m and 9 m in comparison to 0 m (p < 0.01). The exposure levels recorded at 3 m were also significantly different to those recorded at 6 m (p < 0.05) and 9 m (p < 0.01). The exposure levels measured at all distances are below the ICNIRP guidelines and the fields decrease rapidly with an increased distance from the source.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30140955

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Recent Research on Wi-Fi Effects

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Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: https://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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