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19 December 2018

Eighteen New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (18 December 2018)

Eighteen new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 18 December 2018

[Dr. Joel Moscowitz] has been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since August, 2016. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates. The complete collection including the papers below now contains more than 500 abstracts.

To see the latest studies or download the 382-page document (pdf) go to the following web page:
Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

Recent News

Priorities for the IARC Monographs – Call for Nominations of AgentsAdvisory Group to Recommend Priorities for the IARC Monographs during 2020–2024
Lyon, France 25–27 March 2019

New closing date: 15 January 2019

IARC is interested in nomination of agents for future evaluation by the IARC Monographs, for consideration by the Advisory Group to Recommend Priorities for the IARC Monographs during 2020–2024. Pertinent nominations will be made available to the Advisory Group, and no material will be treated as confidential.

All nominations are to be provided before the closing date using the Nomination of agents and WHO Declaration of Interests form.


Note: If the link above to the "Nomination of agents and WHO Declaration of interests form" does not work, you should email the IARC for further information: Priorities2019@iarc.fr

Recent Papers

Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact

Bandara P, Carpenter DO. Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact. The Lancet Planetary Health. 2(12):Pe512-e514, December 01, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30221-3

No abstract

Open access paper: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanplh/article/PIIS2542-5196(18)30221-3/fulltext


Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102)

Miller AB, Morgan LL, Udasin I, Davis DL. Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102). Environmental Research. 167:673-683. Nov 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.043.


• Increased risk of brain, vestibular nerve and salivary gland tumors are associated with mobile phone use.
• Nine studies (2011–2017) report increased risk of brain cancer from mobile phone use.
• Four case-control studies (3 in 2013, 1 in 2014) report increased risk of vestibular nerve tumors.
• Concern for other cancers: breast (male & female), testis, leukemia, and thyroid.
• Based on the evidence reviewed it is our opinion that IARC's current categorization of RFR as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) should be upgraded to Carcinogenic to Humans (Group 1).


Epidemiology studies (case-control, cohort, time trend and case studies) published since the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2011 categorization of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phones and other wireless devices as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) are reviewed and summarized. Glioma is an important human cancer found to be associated with RFR in 9 case-control studies conducted in Sweden and France, as well as in some other countries. Increasing glioma incidence trends have been reported in the UK and other countries. Non-malignant endpoints linked include acoustic neuroma (vestibular Schwannoma) and meningioma. Because they allow more detailed consideration of exposure, case-control studies can be superior to cohort studies or other methods in evaluating potential risks for brain cancer. When considered with recent animal experimental evidence, the recent epidemiological studies strengthen and support the conclusion that RFR should be categorized as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1). Opportunistic epidemiological studies are proposed that can be carried out through cross-sectional analyses of high, medium, and low mobile phone users with respect to hearing, vision, memory, reaction time, and other indicators that can easily be assessed through standardized computer-based tests. As exposure data are not uniformly available, billing records should be used whenever available to corroborate reported exposures.

Synthesis and conclusions

The Epidemiological studies reported since the 2011 IARC Working Group meeting are adequate to consider RFR as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2 A). However, they must be supplemented with the recently reported animal data as performed at the Ramazzini Institute and the US National Toxicology Program as well as by mechanistic studies. These experimental findings together with the epidemiology reviewed here are sufficient in our opinion, to upgrade the IARC categorization of RFR to Group 1, carcinogenic to humans.

It would be useful to know more about the association of additional tumor types such as parotid gland, testicular, breast, hematopoietic malignancies and multiple primaries with RFR. Case studies should continue to be conducted in the absence of a better exposure assessment system to increase awareness and understand the relationship between exposure to RFR and disease causation, as well as trial-error experiments and interventions.

In light of the evolving science concerning mobile phone and screen time exposures and the longer-term risk of cancer established by both epidemiological and toxicological studies, current evidence is strong enough to go from precaution concerning possible risk to prevention of known risks. Although the benefits of connectivity are extremely important, safety considerations demand reconciling use of information vs. risk of perceived rare outcomes. Thus, a concerted program of public and health professional education should be undertaken throughout society explaining current knowledge and devising policies to promote safer technology in partnership with designers of software and hardware. In addition, methods should be developed and validated to reduce exposures in schools, workplaces, hospitals and other workplaces. The precautionary principle should be applied now and suitable warning messages provided to adults and critically to children and their parents. Until technology has been devised that substantially lowers exposures, special efforts should be advanced to ensure that the exposures of children are limited to those deemed essential. Children should be encouraged to text to reduce their exposure to RFR, while every attempt should be made to reduce exposure to RFR in schools, as well as homes.

Research has so far been performed on technologies that have already been introduced, but is critically needed on new, untested technology prior to its use. Epidemiological studies necessarily confirm the impact of past exposures, while experimental studies provide indications of future risk. Thus, experimental evaluations and modeling are essential before distributing newer systems (e.g. 5 G) for which no safety data have been obtained. The absence of systematic testing of such technologies should not be confused with proof of safety. Better modeling through anatomically based systems, such as the Virtual Family, should be encouraged.

In the meantime, the evidence amassed thus far from epidemiology strengthens the case for instituting the precautionary principle with respect to exposures to RFR, especially to young children and men and women that wish to reproduce. The lack of detailed studies at this point reflects a myopic attitude toward the technology that may well prove to be wishful and dangerous thinking. Where studies have been carried out on human sperm quantity and quality there are increasing indications of serious human health impacts. To ignore those findings and subject humans to unevaluated novel RFR frequencies places current and future generations at risk.



Modulation of brain functional connectivity by exposure to LTE (4G) cell phone radiation
Wei Y, Yang J, Chen Z, Wu T, Lv B. Modulation of resting‐state brain functional connectivity by exposure to acute fourth‐generation long‐term evolution electromagnetic field: An fMRI study. Bioelectromagnetics. Published online 18 December 2018


By now, the neurophysiological effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure and its underlying regulating mechanisms are not well manifested. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether acute long‐term evolution (LTE) EMF exposure could modulate brain functional connectivity using regional homogeneity (ReHo) method and seed‐based analysis on resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We performed the LTE‐EMF exposure experiment and acquired the resting‐state brain activities before and after EMF exposure. Then we applied ReHo index to characterize the localized functional connectivity and seed‐based method to evaluate the inter‐regional functional connectivity. Statistical comparisons were conducted to identify the possible evidence of brain functional connectivity modulation induced by the acute LTE‐EMF exposure. We found that the acute LTE‐EMF exposure modulated localized intra‐regional connectivity (p < 0.05, AlphaSim corrected, voxel size ≥ 18) and inter‐regional connectivity in some brain regions (p < 0.05, AlphaSim corrected, voxel size ≥ 18). Our results may indicate that the approaches relying on network‐level inferences could provide deeper insight into the acute effect on human functional activity induced by LTE‐EMF exposure.


“To eliminate study biases, we employed a double‐blind, crossover, randomized, and counterbalanced design. Each participant underwent two experimental sessions including real exposure and sham exposure, which were separated by 1 day….The time‐division LTE signal (2.573 GHz) was produced by a signal generator (CMW500, R&S, Munich, Germany) using a standard formulation for LTE signals….The power delivered to the standard dipole of 2.6 GHz (D2600V2, Speag, Zurich, Switzerland) was 24 dBm (mean value), which was equivalent to a theoretical maximal emission by an LTE terminal. The experiments were conducted in a shielding room to avoid the influence of environmental EMF. Each exposure session lasted for 30 min.”

“Numerical simulations that yielded spatial peak SAR averaging over 10 g tissues for the subjects was 0.98 ± 0.27 W/kg, with a maximal value of 1.52 W/kg, which was below the safety limits [ICNIRP, 1998].”

“In our previous studies, we found that LTE‐EMF exposure depressed the amplitude of spontaneous low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) in some brain regions [Lv et al., 2014], such as those surrounding the left superior temporal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus (STG_L and MTG_L), right superior temporal gyrus (STG_R), right medial frontal gyrus, and right paracentral lobule (MFG_R and PCL_R). In the present study, we found new evidence that acute LTE‐EMF exposures lasting for 30 min modulated brain functional connectivity including not only localized intraregional connectivity, but also interregional connectivity.”

“Conclusion Our results may indicate that approaches relying on network‐level inferences can provide deeper insights into the acute effects of LTE‐EMF exposure with intensities below the current safety limits on human functional connectivity. In the future, we need to investigate the evolution of the effect over time.”



Mobile phone use and incidence of brain tumour histological types, grading or anatomical location: a population-based ecological study

Karipidis K, Elwood M, Benke G, Sanagou M, Tjong L, Croft RJ. Mobile phone use and incidence of brain tumour histological types, grading or anatomical location: a population-based ecological study. BMJ Open. 2018 Dec 9;8(12):e024489. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024489.

Strengths and limitations of this study

  • This study investigated incidence time trends for different brain tumour histological types, grading and anatomical location over different time periods.
  • The study compared the observed brain tumour incidence rates with modelled predicted incidence rates assuming a causal association with mobile phone use.
  • Mobile phone subscription data and information from surveys may not accurately represent mobile phone use patterns in adults.


OBJECTIVE: Some studies have reported increasing trends in certain brain tumours and a possible link with mobile phone use has been suggested. We examined the incidence time trends of brain tumour in Australia for three distinct time periods to ascertain the influence of improved diagnostic technologies and increase in mobile phone use on the incidence of brain tumours.

DESIGN: In a population-based ecological study, we examined trends of brain tumour over the periods 1982-1992, 1993-2002 and 2003-2013. We further compared the observed incidence during the period of substantial mobile phone use (2003-2013) with predicted (modelled) incidence for the same period by applying various relative risks, latency periods and mobile phone use scenarios.

SETTING: National Australian incidence registration data on primary cancers of the brain diagnosed between 1982 and 2013.

POPULATION: 16 825 eligible brain cancer cases aged 20-59 from all of Australia (10 083 males and 6742 females).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual percentage change (APC) in brain tumour incidence based on Poisson regression analysis.

RESULTS: The overall brain tumour rates remained stable during all three periods. There was an increase in glioblastoma during 1993-2002 (APC 2.3, 95% CI 0.8 to 3.7) which was likely due to advances in the use of MRI during that period. There were no increases in any brain tumour types, including glioma (-0.6, -1.4 to 0.2) and glioblastoma (0.8, -0.4 to 2.0), during the period of substantial mobile phone use from 2003 to 2013. During that period, there was also no increase in glioma of the temporal lobe (0.5, -1.3 to 2.3), which is the location most exposed when using a mobile phone. Predicted incidence rates were higher than the observed rates for latency periods up to 15 years.

CONCLUSIONS: In Australia, there has been no increase in any brain tumour histological type or glioma location that can be attributed to mobile phones.

EXCERPT: In conclusion, we found no evidence that mobile phone use increased any brain tumour histological types or subtypes. There was an increase in the incidence of glioblastoma prior to the rapid increase in mobile phone use which was most likely due to improved diagnosis from MRI. Furthermore, there was no increase in gliomas of the temporal lobe, which is the most exposed location, during the period of substantial mobile phone use. The increase in gliomas of the temporal lobe and decrease in gliomas of unspecified location during the periods prior to substantial mobile phone use are in line with the theory of improved diagnosis from CT and MRI. Further, the predicted rates were higher than the observed rates for latency periods up to 15 years. These results do not support an association between mobile phone use and brain tumour, although the possibility of a small risk or a latency period of more than 15 years cannot be excluded. Future research should continue to investigate trends in brain tumour histological types, grading and anatomical location for a possible increase with a longer latency period.

Open access paper: https://bmjopen-bmj-com.libproxy.berkeley.edu/content/8/12/e024489.long

Note: This paper has significant methodological problems. Following are some of Alasdair Philips' comments about the paper:

Omitting the older age groups is not justifiable. Stopping at age 59 misses out the main age–group with the largest rise in glioblastomas. (See my paper: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2018/7910754/ ) and especially the linked Letter to the Editor and the Supplementary file.) Few of the Interphone studies had people over 60 and those that did, did not have a representative number of people over 60, the population with the most people who have used cellphones for the longest cumulative time period

The tumor incidence data in this paper was age-standardized to the World Standard population which does not reasonably match the current age spectrum of higher income countries. The 65-74 age group population in Australia grew from 1.3 million in 2001 to 2.2 million in 2017, so even the Australian Standard Population (2001) is no longer appropriate.

Tables 2 and 3 use all topographical regions and all ages 20-59. This will greatly reduce any rise (see my paper) that occurs in the 50-59 year olds.

Better imaging for glioblastoma made little difference to diagnosing a glioblastoma as it an aggressive tumor; hardly anyone survives 3 years from initial diagnosis.


Possible Effects of RF EMF Exposure on Central Nervous System

Kim JH, Lee JK, Kim HG, Kim KB, Kim HR. Possible effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on central nerve system. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2018 Nov 27. doi: 10.4062/biomolther.2018.152.


Technological advances of mankind, through the development of electrical and communication technologies, have resulted in the exposure to artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF). Technological growth is expected to continue; as such, the amount of EMF exposure will continue to increase steadily. In particular, the use-time of smart phones, that have become a necessity for modern people, is steadily increasing. Social concerns and interest in the impact on the cranial nervous system are increased when considering the area where the mobile phone is used. However, before discussing possible effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on the human body, several factors must be investigated about the influence of EMFs at the level of research using in vitro or animal models. Scientific studies on the mechanism of biological effects are also required. It has been found that RF-EMF can induce changes in central nervous system nerve cells, including neuronal cell apoptosis, changes in the function of the nerve myelin and ion channels; furthermore, RF-EMF act as a stress source in living creatures. The possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure have not yet been proven, and there are insufficient data on biological hazards to provide a clear answer to possible health risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. In this review, we summarize the possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure.

Open access paper: http://www.biomolther.org/journal/view.html?uid=1032&vmd=Full

Cellular Phone Irradiation of the Head Affects Heart Rate Variability Depending on Inspiration/Expiration Ratio
Béres S, Németh Á, Ajtay Z, Kiss I, Németh B, Hejjel L. Cellular Phone Irradiation of the Head Affects Heart Rate Variability Depending on Inspiration/Expiration Ratio.

In Vivo. 2018 Sep-Oct;32(5):1145-1153. doi: 10.21873/invivo.11357.


BACKGROUND: Mobile phones may have harmful health effects and clinical examinations report ambiguous results of exposure concerning neurophysiological and cardiovascular actions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigated heart rate asymmetry (HRA) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters with 1:2 and 1:1 metronome-paced inspiration/expiration ratios during short-term 1,800MHz GSM cellular phone exposure in 20 healthy volunteers.

RESULTS: Significant HRA changes by Porta and Guzik indices were not found on exposure compared to sham exposure. Time-domain HRV parameters on exposure showed significant differences at 1:1 paced, but not at 1:2 paced breathing compared to sham exposure. A mild post-exposure effect was observed regarding root mean square of successive RR-differences.

CONCLUSION: The findings reflect persisting acute effects of GSM handset emission on the autonomic nervous system. Exploring its influences on health status and survival needs further studies. Symmetrical breathing can be used as a sensitizing factor in other HRV/HRA analysis studies.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6199582/

Shielding effects of myelin sheath on axolemma depolarization under transverse electric field stimulation

Ye H, Ng J. Shielding effects of myelin sheath on axolemma depolarization under transverse electric field stimulation. PeerJ. 2018 Dec 3;6:e6020. doi: 10.7717/peerj.6020.


Axonal stimulation with electric currents is an effective method for controlling neural activity. An electric field parallel to the axon is widely accepted as the predominant component in the activation of an axon. However, recent studies indicate that the transverse component to the axolemma is also effective in depolarizing the axon. To quantitatively investigate the amount of axolemma polarization induced by a transverse electric field, we computed the transmembrane potential (Vm) for a conductive body that represents an unmyelinated axon (or the bare axon between the myelin sheath in a myelinated axon). We also computed the transmembrane potential of the sheath-covered axonal segment in a myelinated axon. We then systematically analyzed the biophysical factors that affect axonal polarization under transverse electric stimulation for both the bare and sheath-covered axons. Geometrical patterns of polarization of both axon types were dependent on field properties (magnitude and field orientation to the axon). Polarization of both axons was also dependent on their axolemma radii and electrical conductivities. The myelin provided a significant "shielding effect" against the transverse electric fields, preventing excessive axolemma depolarization. Demyelination could allow for prominent axolemma depolarization in the transverse electric field, via a significant increase in myelin conductivity. This shifts the voltage drop of the myelin sheath to the axolemma. Pathological changes at a cellular level should be considered when electric fields are used for the treatment of demyelination diseases. The calculated term for membrane polarization (Vm) could be used to modify the current cable equation that describes axon excitation by an external electric field to account for the activating effects of both parallel and transverse fields surrounding the target axon.

Open access paper: https://peerj.com/articles/6020/


Effect of antenna polarization & body morphology on measurement uncertainty of wearable multi-band distributed exposure meter

Aminzadeh R, Thielens A, Agneessens S, et al. The effect of antenna polarization and body morphology on the measurement uncertainty of a wearable multi-band distributed exposure meter. Ann. Telecommun. Dec 2018.


This paper studies the effect of antenna polarization on measurement uncertainty of a multi-band body-worn distributed exposure meter (BWDM). The BWDM is a device for assessing electromagnetic fields in real environments accurately. The BWDM consists of 8 nodes and is calibrated on the body for simultaneous measurement of the incident power density in four frequency bands. Each node contains an antenna that can have two potential antenna polarizations.The BWDM is calibrated on four human subjects in an anechoic chamber to determine its measurement uncertainty in terms of 68% confidence interval (CI68) of the on-body antenna aperture. The results show that using a fixed polarization of the antennas on body can lead to a different CI68 up to maximum 4.9 dB when worn by another person which is still 9.6 dB lower than the measurement uncertainty of commercial exposure meters.


The outdoor measurements of both BWDM and ExpoM are in good agreement. Considering the detection limits of both devices, the detection limit of the ExpoM is a factor of 1.85 lower than that of the on-body detection limit of the BWDM worn by sb1. However, a single ExpoM has a larger measurement uncertainty (7.5 dB larger) in this paper. Factors larger than 2 have been reported in the literature [4, 6] for the underestimation of the PEMs.

For the first time, the polarization dependency of a multi-band body-worn distributed exposure meter (BWDM) and the effect of body morphology on this dependency are assessed. The BDWM consists of 8 nodes measuring at four frequency band including downlink (DL) and uplink bands of 900 MHz, WiFi 2 GHz, and DL band of 2600 MHz. The BDWM is calibrated on four male subjects with different body mass indexes (BMIs). For each subject, the on-body antenna aperture and the uncertainty of the BWDM are determined for vertical and horizontal polarizations of the nodes in each of the above frequency bands. The obtained antenna apertures do not show an evident relationship with the BMI. Moreover, the results show that optimizing the polarization of the nodes on one subject could result in higher confidence interval values of the on-body antenna aperture for the subjects with different body morphologies. This is less than 0.5 dB and up to 2.62 dB for subjects with the same height and subjects with different height, respectively. From the results, we conclude that the location of the nodes on the body has a higher influence up to 3.7 dB on the directive gain of the antennas and consequently the measurement uncertainty of the BWDM rather than the height or BMI of the subjects. This could increase up to 4.9 dB if the locations of the nodes are not optimized on the body. The authors suggest to use antennas with dual polarization which register the orthogonal components of the RF fields with one antenna. As an application, a median power density of 39 μW/m2 is registered by the BWDM in a suburban residential area in Ghent which is below the issued reference levels by ICNIRP.



Parental Occupational Exposures and Risk of Childhood Acute Leukemia

Kyriakopoulou A, Meimeti E, Moisoglou I, Psarrou A, Provatopoulou X, Dounias G. Parental Occupational Exposures and Risk of Childhood Acute Leukemia. Mater Sociomed. 2018 Oct;30(3):209-214. doi: 10.5455/msm.2018.30.209-214.


INTRODUCTION: Acute leukemia, accounting for 20% of all cancers diagnosed in individuals younger than 19 years old, is the most prevalent childhood malignancy. Among environmental risk factors, parental occupational exposures have attracted scientific interest as potential predisposing factors for childhood leukemia. The role of parental occupational exposure to social contacts, harmful chemicals, electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation has been investigated with conflicting and inconsistent results.

AIM: A case-control study aiming to assess the association between parental occupational exposures to social contacts, chemicals and electromagnetic fields and the risk of offspring acute leukemia.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: 108 children with acute leukemia and equal number of matched controls were included. Data on parental occupations before conception, during pregnancy, during breastfeeding and after birth, and on potential risk factors was recorded. Associations between parental exposure and risk of childhood leukemia were estimated.

RESULTS: Parental occupational exposure during the four periods of exposure was not associated with childhood leukemia. High birth weight and family history of cancer were associated with the development of childhood acute leukemia. A weak association of maternal medication use during pregnancy and leukemia risk emerged.

CONCLUSIONS: Since the causative factors of childhood leukemia remain unknown, further investigation is mandatory for the reduction of disease burden.


Possible effects of radiofrequency EMF on in vivo C6 brain tumors in Wistar rats

Ouadah NS, Lecomte A, Robidel F, Olsson A, Deltour I, Schüz J, Blazy K, Villégier AS. Possible effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on in vivo C6 brain tumors in Wistar rats. J Neurooncol. 2018 Dec;140(3):539-546. doi: 10.1007/s11060-018-03012-y.


PURPOSE: Glioblastoma is a malignant brain tumor which has one of the poorest prognosis. It is not clear if toxic environmental factors can influence its aggressiveness. Recently, it was suggested that brain cancer patients with heavy cell phone use showed reduced survival. Here we aimed to assess the effect of controlled brain averaged specific absorption rate (BASAR) from heavy use of cell phone radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on in vivo C6 brain tumors in Wistar rats.

METHODS: C6 cells grafted male rats were exposed to GSM 900 MHz signal at environmental BASAR, 0 (sham), 0.25 or 0.5 W/kg (5 days a week, 45 min a day in restraint), or were cage controls (no restraint). At death, tumor volume and immunohistochemistry for CD31, cleaved caspase (CC) 3 and Ki67 were assessed to examine vascularization, apoptosis and cellular divisions, respectively. Moreover, immune cell invasion, necrosis and mitotic index were determined.

RESULTS: Results showed no BASAR effect on survival (31 days post-graft median), tumor volume, mitotic index, vascularization, infiltration, necrosis or cell division. However, results suggested a BASAR-dependent reduction of immune cell invasion and apoptosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested an action of RF-EMF by reducing immune cell invasion and glioblastoma cell apoptosis, at probably too low amplitude to impact survival. Further replication studies are needed to confirm these observations.



Effects of continuous 1-h a day 900-MHz EMF applied through early & mid-adolescence on hippocampus morphology & learning behavior in late adolescent male rats

Keleş A, Yıldırım M, Gedikli Ö, Çolakoğlu S, Kaya H, Baş O, Sönmez OF, Odacı E. The effects of a continuous 1-h a day 900-MHz electromagnetic field applied throughout early and mid-adolescence on hippocampus morphology and learning behavior in late adolescent male rats. J Chem Neuroanat. 2018 Dec;94:46-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2018.08.006.


The purpose of this study was to investigate hippocampus morphology and changes in learning behavior in male rats in late adolescence exposed to the effect of a continuous 1-h a day 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF). Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats aged 3-weeks were divided equally into control, sham and EMF groups. EMF group rats were exposed to a 900-MHz EMF inside an EMF cage, while the sham group rats were placed in the same cage but were not exposed to such an effect. No procedure was performed on the control group. Following 25-day application of EMF, passive avoidance, 8-arm radial maze and Y-maze tests were applied to determine rats' learning and memory performances. Open field and rotarod tests were applied to assess locomotor activity. At the end of the tests, the animals' brains were removed. Sections were taken and stained with toluidine blue. The regions of the hippocampus were subjected to histopathological evaluation. At histopathological examination, impairments of pyramidal and granular cell structures were observed in the EMF group hippocampus. No significant change was observed in learning, memory or locomotor behavior in any group. In conclusion, 900-MHz EMF applied in early and mid-adolescence causes no changes in learning, memory or locomotor behavior.



Exposure to 18 GHz EMF triggers uptake of large nanosphere clusters by pheochromocytoma cells
Perera PGT, Nguyen THP, Dekiwadia C, Wandiyanto JV, Sbarski I, Bazaka O, Bazaka K, Crawford RJ, Croft RJ, Ivanova EP. Exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic field triggers rapid uptake of large nanosphere clusters by pheochromocytoma cells. Intl J Nanomedicine.2018(13):8429—8442. 10 December 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S183767


Background: Effects of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF) on living organisms potentially include transient and permanent changes in cell behaviour, physiology and morphology. At present, these EMF-induced effects are poorly defined, yet their understanding may provide important insights into consequences of uncontrolled (e.g., environmental) as well as intentional (e.g., therapeutic or diagnostic) exposure of biota to EMFs. In this work, for the first time, we study mechanisms by which a high frequency (18 GHz) EMF radiation affects the physiology of membrane transport in pheochromocytoma PC 12, a convenient model system for neurotoxicological and membrane transport studies.
Methods and results: Suspensions of the PC 12 cells were subjected to three consecutive cycles of 30s EMF treatment with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.17 kW kg-1, with cells cooled between exposures to reduce bulk dielectric heating. The EMF exposure resulted in a transient increase in membrane permeability for 9 min in up to 90 % of the treated cells, as demonstrated by rapid internalisation of silica nanospheres (diameter d ≈ 23.5 nm) and their clusters (d ≈ 63 nm). In contrast, the PC 12 cells that received an equivalent bulk heat treatment behaved similar to the untreated controls, showing lack to minimal nanosphere uptake of approximately 1–2 %. Morphology and growth of the EMF treated cells were not altered, indicating that the PC 12 cells were able to remain viable after the EMF exposure. The metabolic activity of EMF treated PC 12 cells was similar to that of the heat treated and control samples, with no difference in the total protein concentration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release between these groups.

Conclusion: These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of EMF-induced biological activity in mammalian cells, suggesting a possible use of EMFs to facilitate efficient transport of biomolecules, dyes and tracers, and genetic material across cell membrane in drug delivery and gene therapy, where permanent permeabilisation or cell death is undesirable.

Open access paper: https://www.dovepress.com/exposure-to-high-frequency-electromagnetic-field-triggers-rapid-uptake-peer-reviewed-article-IJN


Two Forms of Electrical Transmission Between Neurons

Faber DS, Pereda AE. Two Forms of Electrical Transmission Between Neurons. Front Mol Neurosci. 2018 Nov 21;11:427. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2018.00427.


Electrical signaling is a cardinal feature of the nervous system and endows it with the capability of quickly reacting to changes in the environment. Although synaptic communication between nerve cells is perceived to be mainly chemically mediated, electrical synaptic interactions also occur. Two different strategies are responsible for electrical communication between neurons. One is the consequence of low resistance intercellular pathways, called "gap junctions", for the spread of electrical currents between the interior of two cells. The second occurs in the absence of cell-to-cell contacts and is a consequence of the extracellular electrical fields generated by the electrical activity of neurons. Here, we place present notions about electrical transmission in a historical perspective and contrast the contributions of the two different forms of electrical communication to brain function.

Open access paper: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00427/full--


The effect of chronic exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on sleep quality, stress, depression and anxiety

Bagheri Hosseinabadi M, Khanjani N, Ebrahimi MH, Haji B, Abdolahfard M. The effect of chronic exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on sleep quality, stress, depression and anxiety. Electromagn Biol Med. 2018 Dec 14:1-6. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2018.1545665.


Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) is inevitable in some industries. There are concerns about the possible effects of this exposure. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on sleep quality, stress, depression and anxiety among power plant workers. In this cross-sectional study, 132 power plant workers were included as the exposed group and 143 other workers were included as the unexposed group. The intensity of ELF-EMF at work stations was measured by using the IEEE Std C95.3.1 standard and then the time weighted average was calculated. Sleep quality, stress, depression and anxiety were measured by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire; and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The workers in the exposed group experienced significantly poorer sleep quality than the unexposed group. Depression was also more severe in the exposed group than the unexposed group (P = 0.039). Increased exposure to ELF-EMF had a direct and significant relation with increased stress, depression, and anxiety. Sleep quality in technicians with the highest exposure was significantly lower than the other groups. This study suggests that long-term occupational exposure to ELF-EMF may lead to depression, stress, anxiety and poor sleep quality.



A review on the effects of ELF-EMF on cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity

Mahaki H, Tanzadehpanah H, Jabarivasal N, Sardanian K, Zamani A. A review on the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity. Electromagn Biol Med. 2018 Dec 6:1-12. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2018.1545668


Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is produced extensively in modern technologies. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that ELF-EMF has both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the immune system response. This review was conducted on effects of ELF-EMF on cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity. Mechanisms of ELF-EMF, which may modulate immune cell responses, were also studied. Physical and biological parameters of ELF-EMF can interact with each other to create beneficial or harmful effect on the immune cell responses by interfering with the inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines. According to the studies, it is supposed that short-term (2-24 h/d up to a week) exposure of ELF-EMF with strong density may increase innate immune response due to an increase of innate immunity cytokines. Furthermore, long-term (2-24 h/d up to 8 years) exposure to low-density ELF-EMF may cause a decrease in adaptive immune response, especially in Th1 subset.



In this review, we reported a summary of ELF-EMF effects on the expression and release of cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity, which have been described in many investigations. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of ELF-EMF on cytokine expression can be observed as a complex process associated with physical and biological factors of ELF-EMF. Based on the results of reviewed studies, short-term (2 to 24 h/d up to a week) exposure of strong density ELF-EMF probably increases the innate immune response. Furthermore, adaptive immune response may be reduced at long-term (2 to 24 h/d up to 8 years) exposure of low density ELF-EMF, especially for the Th1 subset. Altogether, it is difficult to conclude the beneficial or hazard effects of ELF-EMF on immune cells response, due to the differences in physical (frequency, field density, field direction, and exposure duration) and biological parameters (stimulus, species, cell type, and tissue type) of ELF-EMF.


Protective properties of myrtle extract against oxidative effects of ELF EMF on rat plasma and hemoglobin
Seif F, Bayatiani MR, Ansarihadipour H, Habibi G, Sadelaji S. Protective properties of Myrtus communis extract against oxidative effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on rat plasma and hemoglobin. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Nov 29:1-22. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2019.1542182.


PURPOSE: This study investigates the protective properties of Myrtus communis extract against oxidative effects of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELFMF). Also this study is aimed to analyze the conformational changes of hemoglobin, oxidative damages to plasma proteins and antioxidant power of plasma following exposure to ELFMF.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male rats were divided into 3 groups: (1) control, (2) ELFMF exposure, and (3) ELFMF exposure after Myrtus communis extract administration. The magnetic field (0.7 mT, 50 Hz) was produced by a Helmholtz coil for one month, 2 hours a day. The Myrtus communis extract was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg before exposure to ELFMF. The oxidative effects of ELFMF were studied by evaluating the hemoglobin, methemoglobin (metHb) and hemichrome levels, absorption spectrum of hemoglobin (200 to 700 nm), oxidative damage to plasma proteins by measuring protein carbonyl (PCO) levels and plasma antioxidant power according to ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). The mean and standard errors of mean were determined for each group. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare the means of groups. The significance level was considered to be P < 0.05. Moreover, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis was used to identify the predictive parameters for estimating the oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) concentration.

RESULTS: Exposure to ELFMF decreased the FRAP which was in concomitant with a significant increase in plasma PCO, metHb and hemichrome concentrations (p < 0.001). Oxidative modifications of Hb were shown by reduction in optical density at 340nm (globin-heme interaction) and 420 nm (heme-heme interaction). Administration of Myrtus communis extract increased FRAP values and decreased plasma POC, metHb and hemichrome concentrations. Also a significant increase in Hb absorbance at 340, 420, 542 and 577 nm showed the protective properties of Myrtus communis extract against ELFMF-induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes. ANN analysis showed that optical absorption of hemoglobin at 520, 577, 542, and 630 nm and concentration of metHb and hemichrome were the most important parameters in predicting the oxyHb concentration.

CONCLUSIONS: Myrtus communis extract enhances the ability of erythrocytes and plasma to deal with oxidative conditions during exposure to ELFMF. Also ANN analysis can predict the most important parameters in relation to Hb structure during oxidative stress.



Do subterranean mammals use the Earth's magnetic field as a heading indicator to dig straight tunnels?

Malewski S, Begall S, Schleich CE, Antenucci CD, Burda H. Do subterranean mammals use the Earth's magnetic field as a heading indicator to dig straight tunnels? PeerJ. 2018 Oct 31;6:e5819. doi: 10.7717/peerj.5819.


Subterranean rodents are able to dig long straight tunnels. Keeping the course of such "runways" is important in the context of optimal foraging strategies and natal or mating dispersal. These tunnels are built in the course of a long time, and in social species, by several animals. Although the ability to keep the course of digging has already been described in the 1950s, its proximate mechanism could still not be satisfactorily explained. Here, we analyzed the directional orientation of 68 burrow systems in five subterranean rodent species (Fukomys anselli, F. mechowii, Heliophobius argenteocinereus, Spalax galili, and Ctenomys talarum) on the base of detailed maps of burrow systems charted within the framework of other studies and provided to us. The directional orientation of the vast majority of all evaluated burrow systems on the individual level (94%) showed a significant deviation from a random distribution. The second order statistics (averaging mean vectors of all the studied burrow systems of a respective species) revealed significant deviations from random distribution with a prevalence of north-south (H. argenteocinereus), NNW-SSE (C. talarum), and NE-SW (Fukomys mole-rats) oriented tunnels. Burrow systems of S. galiliwere randomly oriented. We suggest that the Earth's magnetic field acts as a common heading indicator, facilitating to keep the course of digging. This study provides a field test and further evidence for magnetoreception and its biological meaning in subterranean mammals. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for future field experiments.

LiFi is a paradigm-shifting 5G technology
Haas H. LiFi is a paradigm-shifting 5G technology. Reviews in Physics. 3:26-31. Nov 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revip.2017.10.001


In this paper we will first explain what Light-Fidelity (LiFi) is and argue that it is a 5th Generation (5G) technology. Peak transmission speeds of 8 Gbps from a single light source have been demonstrated, and complete cellular networks based on LiFi have been created. We will discuss numerous misconceptions and illustrate the potential impact this technology can have across a number of existing and emerging industries. We also discuss new applications which LiFi can unlock in the future.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405428317300151


Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: https://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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