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04 May 2019

Twenty-Four New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (3 May 2019)

Twenty-four new papers on electromagnetic fields and biology or health, courtesy of Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director, Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 3 May 2019

[Dr. Moscowitz] has been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since August, 2016. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates. The complete collection including the papers below now contains more than 600 abstracts.

To see the latest studies or to download the 450-page document (pdf) go to the following web page:

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

News

International Symposium: Biological Effects of Wireless Technology, Mainz, Germany, October 2019

An international symposium, “Technical progress or progressive irresponsibility? Biological effects of wireless technology,” has been organized by a number of European organisations, a partial listing includes the Competence Initiative for the Protection of Humans, the Environmental and Consumer Organization for the Protection against Electromagnetic Radiation, the European Academy of Environmental Medicine (EUROPAEM), Pandora – the Foundation for Independent Research, the Association of Building Biology and other partners.

The event is sponsored by Stiftung für Kinder, Freiburg and Auerbach Stiftung, Tettnang. It will take place on October 4-6, 2019 at the Electoral Palace Mainz.

http://kompetenzinitiative.net/KIT/KIT/ankuendigung-announcement-internationale-oeffentliche-tagung-in-mainz-international-public-symposium-in-mainz-germany/

Recent Papers



Maternal Cell Phone Use During Pregnancy, Pregnancy Duration And Fetal Growth In Four Birth Cohorts
Tsarna E, Reedijk M, Birks LE, Guxens M, Ballester F, Ha M, Jiménez-Zabala A, Kheifets L, Lertxundi A, Lim HR, Olsen J, Safont LG, Sudan M, Cardis E, Vrijheid M, Vrijkotte T, Huss A, Vermeulen R. Maternal Cell Phone Use During Pregnancy, Pregnancy Duration And Fetal Growth In Four Birth Cohorts. Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Apr 17. pii: kwz092. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwz092.

Abstract

Previous studies evaluating potential effects of prenatal exposure to radiofrequency fields from cell phones on birth outcomes are inconsistent. We explored if maternal cell phone use was associated with pregnancy duration and fetal growth. We used information from 55,507 pregnant women and their children from Denmark (1996-2002), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Spain (2003-2008) and Korea (2006-2011). Based on self-reported number of cell phone calls per day, exposure was grouped as none, low (reference level), intermediate, and high. We examined pregnancy duration (gestational age at birth, preterm/postterm birth), fetal growth (birth weight ratio, small/large for gestational age), and birth weight, low and high birth weight, and meta-analyzed cohort specific estimates. The intermediate exposure group had higher risk of giving birth at lower gestational age (Hazard Ratio=1.04, 95%CI 1.01, 1.07), and exposure-response relationships were found for shorter pregnancy duration (P<0.001) and preterm birth (P=0.003). We observed no association with fetal growth or birth weight. In conclusion, maternal cell phone use during pregnancy may be associated with shorter pregnancy duration and increased risk for preterm birth. Results should be interpreted with caution, as they may reflect stress during pregnancy or other residual confounding, rather than direct effect of cell phone exposure.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30995291

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Mother's Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields before and during Pregnancy is Associated with Risk of Speech Problems in Offspring

Zarei S, Vahab M, Oryadi-Zanjani MM, Alighanbari N, Mortazavi SM. Mother's Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields before and during Pregnancy is Associated with Risk of Speech Problems in Offspring. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2019 Feb 1;9(1):61-68.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Rapid advances in technology, especially in the field of telecommunication, have led to extraordinary levels of mothers' exposures to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) prior to or during pregnancy.

OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to answer this question whether exposure of women to common sources of RF-EMFs either prior to or during pregnancy is related to speech problems in the offspring.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, mothers of 110 three-to-seven-year-old children with speech problems and 75 healthy children (control group) were interviewed. These mothers were asked whether they had exposure to different sources of EMFs such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, Wi-Fi, cordless phones, laptops and power lines. Chi square test was used to analyze the differences observed between the control and exposed groups.

RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were found between the use of cordless phone and offspring speech problems for both before pregnancy and during pregnancy maternal exposures (P=0.005 and P=0.014, respectively). However, due to high rate of mobile phone use in both groups, this study failed to show any link between mobile phone use and speech problems in offspring. Furthermore, significant associations were observed between living in the vicinity of power lines and speech problems again for both before pregnancy and during pregnancy maternal exposures (P=0.003 and P=0.002, respectively). However, exposure to other sources of non-ionizing radiation was not linked to speech problems. Moreover, exposure to ionizing radiation (e.g. radiography before and during pregnancy) was not associated with the occurrence of speech problems.

CONCLUSION: Although this study has some limitations, it leads us to this conclusion that higher-than-ever levels of maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields could be linked to offspring speech problems.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409372/

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Maternal proximity to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and risk of birth defects

Auger N, Arbour L, Luo W, Lee GE, Bilodeau-Bertrand M, Kosatsky T. Maternal proximity to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and risk of birth defects. Eur J Epidemiol. 2019 Apr 11. doi: 10.1007/s10654-019-00518-1.

Abstract

Causes of birth defects are unclear, and the association with electromagnetic fields is inconclusive. We assessed the relationship between residential proximity to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields from power grids and risk of birth defects. We analyzed a population-based sample of 2,164,246 infants born in Quebec, Canada between 1989 and 2016. We geocoded the maternal residential postal code at delivery and computed the distance to the nearest high voltage electrical transmission line or transformer station. We used log-binomial regression to estimate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of residential proximity to transmission lines and transformer stations with birth defects, adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics. The prevalence of birth defects within 200 m of a transmission line (579.4 per 10,000 per live births) was only slightly higher compared with distances further away (568.7 per 10,000). A similar trend was seen for transformer stations. Compared with 200 m, a distance of 50 m was not associated with the risk of birth defects for transmission lines (RR 1.00, 95% CI 1.00-1.01) and transformer stations (RR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03). There was no consistent association when we examined birth defects in different organ systems. We found no compelling evidence that residential proximity to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields from electrical power grids increases the risk of birth defects. Women residing near electrical grids can be reassured that an effect on the risk of birth defects is unlikely.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30977029

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Microwave Emissions From Cell Phones Exceed Safety Limits in Europe and the US When Touching the Body

Gandhi OP. Microwave Emissions From Cell Phones Exceed Safety Limits in Europe and the US When Touching the Body. IEEE Access. 7:47050-47052. Apr 11, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2906017

Abstract

In our publications, we have shown both from measurements and computer modeling that the specific absorption rate (SAR) reduces by 10%–15% for every millimeter separation of the cell phone on account of rapidly diminishing EM fields in the near-field region of the cell phone antenna. This rapid reduction of SAR depending on the antenna and its location on the handset has been shown, both computationally and experimentally, regardless of the phantom model such as a flat phantom suggested for SAR compliance testing of devices in contact with the body, for a sphere phantom, and for head-shaped models used for SAR compliance testing of cell phones. Unfortunately, our observations in the past were based on SARs of only three cell phones. Expecting that the SARs for cell phones may exceed the safety limits for body contact, cell phone manufacturers have started to recommend that the devices can be used at 5–25 mm from the body even though it is difficult to see how to maintain this distance correctly under mobile conditions. The National Agency ANFR of France recently released the cell phone SAR test data for 450 cell phones that measure 10-g SARs reducing by 10%–30% for each millimeter distal placement from the planar body phantom. Their data corroborate our findings that most cell phones will exceed the safety guidelines when held against the body by factors of 1.6–3.7 times for the European/ICNIRP standard or by factors as high as 11 if 1-g SAR values were to be measured as required by the U.S. FCC.

Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8688629

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On Measuring Electromagnetic Fields in 5G Technology

Pawlak R, Krawiec P, Żurek J. On Measuring Electromagnetic Fields in 5G Technology. IEEE Access. 7: 29826-29835. March 5, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2902481

Abstract

At the awakening of the new 5G network as the network of services, issues related to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) will become one of the key aspects for the cost-effective establishment of the 5G infrastructure. The new 5G services will meet the rigorous demand for bandwidth through the implementation of a large number of densely located base stations operating in the millimeter-wave range. Introduction of new emission sources, working in parallel with already existing 2G/3G/4G mobile technologies, raises concerns about exceeding the admissible EMF exposure limits. This paper analyzes issues and challenges related to EMF measurements in 5G technology, which are crucial for the assessment of EMF compliance with regulatory limits. We point out that the existing methodologies, dedicated to EMF measurements in 2G, 3G, and 4G networks, are not suitable for 5G. The reason is the use of new techniques, such as massive MIMO and precise beamforming together with higher frequency bands so that the existing measurement methods can lead to significantly overestimated results when they will be applied to 5G networks. Such results, in conjunction with the restrictive legislation on the EMF limits that apply in some countries, may have the negative impact on 5G network deployment, making it difficult to achieve the intended 5G network capabilities. We also propose an alternative method of EMF exposure assessment that is based on calculations and simulations and allows obtaining an accurate estimation of the EMF distribution in the 5G environment.

Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8660395

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On The Assessment of Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Transmitted by 5G Base Stations

Keller H. On the assessment of human exposure to electromagnetic fields transmitted by 5G NR base stations. Health Phys. 2019 Apr 23. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001089.

Abstract

The fifth-generation new radio cellular network will be rolled out within the next few years. Several assessment methods of human exposure to electromagnetic fields transmitted by fifth-generation new radio base stations are discussed. Currently no method exists that allows extrapolation to the maximum theoretical exposure. Thus two new extrapolation methods are proposed. A 95th percentile exposure can be derived from the maximum theoretical exposure by an agreed-upon reduction factor if a more realistic exposure assessment is required.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31022013

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Electromagnetic field (EMF) Measurement for Public Safety Exposure Level

Khan ZI, Razak AZA, Zakaria NA, Rashid NEA, Othman, KA. Electromagnetic field (EMF) Measurement for Public Safety Exposure Level. 2018 International Conference on Radar, Antenna, Microwave, Electronics, and Telecommunications (ICRAMET). 1-2 Nov. 2018. Serpong, Indonesia. Added to IEEE Xplore: 09 April 2019. pp. 66-69.

Abstract


This paper presents the level of Radio Frequency electromagnetic fields from Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) base station antennas. The exposure of Electromagnetic field towards public is being discuss widely due to the fact that it effects the human lives that is surrounded by these communication developments. Certain area was investigated earlier in order to obtain the strongest point of exposure. The location chosen in this paper was based on the red zone detected in the earlier drive test measurement. The measurement was conducted during morning, afternoon and night for 3 days. Data was collected using isotropic antenna and spectrum analyzer. The E-field exposure levels were found to be lower than the maximum level set by international commission on Non-Ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP) for the general public.

Conclusion

Overall LTE 2.6 GHz has a highest maximum E-field value compare to the other frequency. The high value of Efield could be related to the mobile traffic and also the higher power need for transmitting higher frequency. Lower frequency like GSM900 can travel further even though it requires less power because the properties of the wave itself. Higher frequencies require more power to travel longer distances. Based on all the data and analyzation done, all of the value gain are below the limit set by ICNIRP.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8683911

Note: Industry representatives typically argue that exposures from 4G (LTE) are less than from 2G (GSM) cell towers. This study found the opposite.

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A Multi-Band Body-Worn Distributed Exposure Meter for Personal Radio-Frequency Dosimetry in Diffuse Indoor Environments

Aminzadeh R, Thielens A, …, Wout J. (19 authors). A multi-band body-worn distributed exposure meter for personal radio-frequency dosimetry in diffuse indoor environments. IEEE Sensors Journal. April 29, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2913309

Abstract

A multi-band body-worn distributed exposure meter (BWDM) is designed and calibrated for diffuse fields in a reverberation chamber (RC) for personal exposure assessment in indoor environments. The BWDM uses 22 nodes distributed over the torso and measures the incident power density (Sinc) on body for 11 telecommunication bands in the frequency range 790-5513 MHz. In order to calibrate the measurement device in diffuse fields, a protocol is proposed for on-body calibration of the BWDM. This protocol is applicable to wearable personal exposure meters in general. The BWDM and the proposed calibration protocol are validated in five indoor locations and five frequency bands (the downlink bands at 800, 900, 1800 and 2100 MHz and WiFi 2 GHz) using a tri-axial broadband antenna and a spectrum analyzer (SA). The calibration shows that the BWDM has a relatively low measurement uncertainty with a 68% confidence interval on its antenna apertures, in the range 3.4-5.5 dB. A maximum difference of 0.9 dB is obtained for the total exposure in the test areas between the measurements of the BWDM and SA, which is an excellent agreement.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8701577

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A systematic review of in vitro and in vivo radio frequency exposure methods
Hansen JW, Swartz EM, Cleveland JD, Asif SM, Brooks B, Braaten BD, Ewert D. A systematic review of in vitro and in vivo radio frequency exposure methods. IEEE Rev Biomed Eng. 2019 Apr 18. doi: 10.1109/RBME.2019.2912023. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The interests in the effects of radio frequency (RF) on biological systems has increased. This interest has increased partially due to the advancements and increase implementations of RF into technology. As research in the area has progressed, the reliability and reproducibility of those experiments has not crossed multidisciplinary boundaries. Therefore, as researchers, it is imperative to understand the various exposure systems available as well as the aspects, both electromagnetic and biological, needed to produce a sound exposure experiment. This systematic review examines common radio frequency exposure methods for both in vitro and in vivo studies. For in vitro studies, discussion of possible biological limitations to consider were also emphasized. The validity of the examined methods, for both in vitro and in vivo, were analyzed by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each. This review offers guidance for researchers to assist in the development of an RF exposure experiment that crosses current multidisciplinary boundaries.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30998481

Conclusion

In a field that continues to struggle with reproducible results, the use of detailed, rigorous, reproducible, and transparent methodologies are critical moving forward. This detail needs to be thoroughly recorded for both the electromagnetic and the biological components of these exposure studies in order for the results to be reliable. Biological conditions and controls need to be considered as well in order to produce a reliable and reproducible experiment. Consideration of both the electromagnetic and biological components of the study should be detailed within these methodologies in order to provide reproducibility to the field. In addition, the realization that researchers are investigating a complex adaptive system is important in determining the impact of comparisons made between study and methods due to the difficulty in determining if the result is due to test exposure or because of the nature of the system. This review provides a systematic overview of common exposure methods in both in vitro and in vivo exposures, as well as providing advantages and disadvantages of each method. The goal of this being that researchers have a better understanding of methods they decide to use, and conclusions made given the results of studies which share similar scopes.

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Direct and indirect effects of exposure to 900 MHz GSM RF EMF on CHO cell line: Evidence of bystander effect by non-ionizing radiation

Jooyan N, Goliaei B, Bigdeli B, Faraji-Dana R, Zamani A, Entezami M, Mortazavi SMJ. Direct and indirect effects of exposure to 900 MHz GSM radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on CHO cell line: Evidence of bystander effect by non-ionizing radiation. Environ Res. 2019 Apr 1. pii: S0013-9351(19)30197-5. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.03.063.

Highlights

• Short-term exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted from mobile phones may cause genotoxic effects.
• RFR has both targeted and non-targeted effects on cells.
• RFR-induced non-targeted effects include bystander effect.
• The biological effects of RFR are possibly mediated by oxidative stress.
• Extracellular ROS can trigger molecular signals in non-targeted cells.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The rapid rise in global concerns about the adverse health effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generated by common devices such as mobile phones has prompted scientists to further investigate the biological effects of these environmental exposures. Non-targeted effects (NTEs) are responses which do not need a direct exposure to be expressed and are particularly significant at low energy radiations. Although NTEs of ionizing radiation are well documented, there are scarcely any studies on non-targeted responses such as bystander effect (BE) after exposure to non-ionizing radiation. The main goal of this research is to study possible RFR-induced BE.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to 900 MHz GSM RFR at an average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg for 4, 12 and 24 hours (h). To generate a uniformly distributed electromagnetic field and avoid extraneous RF exposures a cavity was desined and used. Cell membrane permeability, cell redox activity, metabolic and mitotic cell death and DNA damages were analyzed. Then the most effective exposure durations and statistically significant altered parameters were chosen to assess the induction of BE through medium transfer procedure. Furthermore, intra and extra cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured to assess the molecular mechanism of BE induced by non-ionizing radiation.

RESULTS: No statistically significant alteration was found in cell membrane permeability, cell redox activity, metabolic cell activity and micronuclei (MN) frequency in the cells directly exposed to RFR for 4, 12, or 24 h. However, RFR exposure for 24 h caused a statistically significant decrease in clonogenic ability as well as a statistically significant increase in olive moment in both directly exposed and bystander cells which received media from RFR-exposed cells (conditioned culture medium; CCM). Exposure to RFR also statistically significant elevated both intra and extra cellular levels of ROS.

CONCLUSION: Our observation clearly indicated the induction of BE in cells treated with CCM. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a non-ionizing radiation (900 MHz GSM RFR) can induce bystander effect. As reported for ionizing radiation, our results proposed that ROS can be a potential molecule in indirect effect of RFR. On the other hand, we found the importance of ROS in direct effect of RFR but in different ways.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31036329

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Effects of Mobile Phone EMF on β-Amyloid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human and Rat Primary Astrocytes

Tsoy A, Saliev T, Abzhanova E, Turgambayeva A, Kaiyrlykyzy A, Akishev M, Saparbayev S, Umbayev B, Askarova S. The Effects of Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on β-Amyloid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human and Rat Primary Astrocytes. Neuroscience. Published online Apr 3, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.03.058

Highlights

• EMF of 918 MHz decreases Aß42- induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS in human and rat primary astrocytes.
• EMF of 918 MHz increases mitochondrial membrane potential in rat primary astrocytes.
• EMF of 918 MHz suppresses induced by Aß42 activation of NADPH oxidase in rat primary astrocytes.
• EMF of 918 MHz suppresses H2O2–induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and ERK ½ in rat primary astrocytes.

Abstract

Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) is implicated in the development of pathological reactions associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation and death of brain cells. Current pharmacological approaches to treat AD are not able to control the deposition of Aβ and suppression of Aβ-induced cellular response. There is a growing body of evidence that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) causes a decrease of beta-amyloid deposition in the brains and provides cognitive benefits to Alzheimer's Tg mice. Herein, we investigated the effects of mobile phone radiofrequency EMF of 918 MHz on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), activity of NADPH-oxidase, and phosphorylation of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 kinases in human and rat primary astrocytes in the presence of Aβ42 and H2O2. Our data demonstrate that EMF is able to reduce Aβ42- and H2O2–induced cellular ROS, abrogate Aβ₄₂-induced production of mitochondrial ROS and the co-localization between the cytosolic (p47-phox) and membrane (gp91-phox) subunits of NADPH oxidase, while increasing MMP, and inhibiting H2O2–induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 in primary astrocytes. Yet, EMF was not able to modulate alterations in the phosphorylation state of the MAPKs triggered by Aβ42. Our findings provide an insight into the mechanisms of cellular and molecular responses of astrocytes on RF-EMF exposure and indicate the therapeutic potential of RF-EMF for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Excerpt

In summary, our data showed that EMF treatment of brain cells with parameters similar to irradiation from the ordinary mobile phone (918 MHz; GSM) was capable of suppressing oxidative stress triggered by Aβ42 and H2O2,thus indicating its possible therapeutic benefit. Our data conform to the previous reports on beneficial impact of EMF that can be employed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. However, further studies are needed to validate the effectiveness and safety of EMF application in AD patients.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306452219302337

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Radiophysical Microwave Installation for Investigating Biological Effects in Mice with Tumor

Kryukova OV, Pyankov VF, Salomatov YP, Kopylov AF. Radiophysical microwave installation for investigating biological effects in mice with tumor. 2019 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). 28-31 Jan. 2019. DOI: 10.1109/EIConRus.2019.8657031.

Abstract

Designing radiophysical devices for investigating the effect of microwave radiation on biological objects is one of the main directions in applied modern radio-electronics. An installation for investigating the radiophysical microwave radiation effects on laboratory animals has been developed, with the frequency being 915 MHz, power of electromagnetic radiation being 10 μW/cm2. The results obtained demonstrate the survival rate of mice with tumor under the influence of electromagnetic field.

Excerpts

The laboratory animals were exposed to microwave EMR at a frequency of 915 MHz, with the energy flux density being 10 μW / cm2 and 100 μW / cm2....

As a model tumor, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma was used. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma is one of the most common tumors used as a model in scientific research....

After the tumor transplantation the animals were divided into three groups: the control and two experimental ones. (EMR group exposed to 10 μW\cm2 and EMR group exposed to 100μW\cm2). The animals of the experimental groups were daily subjected to electromagnetic radiation for 1 hour during 10 days. The control group was kept under the same conditions without the influence of the electromagnetic radiation. In the course of the experiment the mortality of the animals was recorded during 45 days after the beginning of the tumor transplantation.

Thus, independently on the power, the impact of microwave radiation changes the lifetime of the animals with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In this case, using the power of 10 μW /cm2 slows down the animal death and the power of 100 μW/cm2 decreases the lifetime of the animals. However, in the group exposed to 100 μW/cm2 no tumor developed after the transplantation. Using the mathematical methods of analysis the author [10], [11] show that there is a connection between the development of cancer diseases among the population and the main factors of the electromagnetic load due to EMR when using MRT as a carcinogenic factor or a factor contributing to cancer genesis. Moreover, some researchers suggest that radiofrequency fields can act as cancer promoters [12]. Thus, it is important to study the impact of electromagnetic microwave radiation on the growth dynamics of tumor cells and their functional condition, for example, in order to estimate the degree of risk of tumor progressing. Consequently, it is necessary to develop a method of estimating the carcinogenic risk under the impact of microwave radiation, in particular to improve the suggested and implemented measures for minimizing unfavorable and harmful effects. It is dangerous to underestimate as well as to overestimate the risk of the impact for the given widely spread factor.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8657031

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Long-term exposure of 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation induces stress and anxiety like behavior in rats

Gupta SK, Patel SK, Tomar MS, Singh SK, Mesharam MK, Krishnamurthy S. Long-term exposure of 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation induces stress and anxiety like behavior in rats. Neurochemistry International. Publ. online Apr 4, 2019.

Highlights

• EMR-2450 MHz induces stress and aggravates anxiety-like symptoms in rats.

• Exposure of EMR-2450 MHz increases plasma corticosterone level and, expression of CRH-2 and GR in amygdala.

• Increased expression of cytochrome-C and caspase-9 indicating mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of apoptosis.

• Change in expression of mitochondrial Bax: Bcl2 ratio indicating modulation of apoptosis.

• EMR-2450 MHz exposure causes both amygdalar necrotic and apoptotic cell death.

Abstract

Long term exposure of electromagnetic radiations (EMR) from cell phones and Wi-Fi hold greater propensity to cause anxiety disorders. However, the studies investigating the effects of chronic exposure of EMR are limited. Therefore, we investigated the effects of repeated exposure of discrete frequency of EMR in experimental animals. Male rats were exposed to EMR (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz) for 28 (1 h/day) days. Long term exposure of EMR (2450 MHz) induced anxiety like behavior. It deregulated the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in rats as observed by increase in plasma corticosterone levels apart from decreased corticotrophin releasing hormone-2 (CRH-2) and Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in amygdala. Further, it impaired mitochondrial function and integrity. The expression of Bcl2 showed significant decrease while Bax and ratio of Bax: Bcl2 were increased in the mitochondria and vice versa in cytoplasm indicating altered regulation of apoptosis. EMR exposure caused release of cytochrome-c and expression of caspase-9 ensuing activation of apoptotic cell death. Additional set of experiments performed to estimate the pattern of cell death showed necrotic and apoptotic amygdalar cell death after EMR exposure. Histopathological studies also revealed a significant decrease in neuronal cells in amygdala. The above findings indicate that long-term exposure of EMR radiation (2450 MHz) acts as a stressor and induces anxiety-like behaviors with concomitant pathophysiological changes in EMR subjected rats.

Excerpts

The average power density was 0.1227 W/m2. The whole body SAR values was found in between the 0.025–0.070 W/kg range, representing an average SAR value to be approximately 0.042 W/kg. The value of SAR in head region was found to be 0.131 W/kg (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz) with a value of power density 0.1227 W/m2....

All the rats were distributed into four different groups of six each. They were designated as control, EMR-900, EMR-1800 and EMR-2450.... The groups, EMR-900 MHz, EMR-1800 MHz and EMR-2450 MHz were continuously exposed to electromagnetic radiations between 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. for 1 h for 28 days beginning from D-1. After 15 min of EMR exposure on D-1 to D-28 at 7 day interval, behavioral assessments were performed....

In this study, we have shown that rats sub-chronically exposed to EMR at a frequency of 2450 MHz exhibited anxiety-like symptoms. Repeated EMR-2450 MHz exposure caused an increase in corticosterone levels while the expression of CRH-2 and GR expression were significantly reduced in amygdala. EMR exposed animals showed alterations in the mitochondrial function and integrity. It also induced apoptotic factors leading to decrease of neuronal cells in the amygdalar region....

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30954502

Note: This was not Wi-Fi because the signals were not modulated.

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Effects of 220 MHz Pulsed Modulated Radiofrequency Field on the Sperm Quality in Rats

Guo L, Lin JJ, Xue YZ, An GZ, Zhang JP, Zhang KY, He W, Wang H, Li W, Ding GR. Effects of 220 MHz Pulsed Modulated Radiofrequency Field on the Sperm Quality in Rats. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Apr 10;16(7). pii: E1286. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16071286.

Abstract

Under some occupational conditions, workers are inevitably exposed to high-intensity radiofrequency (RF) fields. In this study, we investigated the effects of one-month exposure to a 220 MHz pulsed modulated RF field at the power density of 50 W/m² on the sperm quality in male adult rats. The sperm quality was evaluated by measuring the number, abnormality and survival rate of sperm cells. The morphology of testis was examined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of secreting factors by Sertoli cells (SCs) and Leydig cells (LCs) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The level of cleaved caspase 3 in the testis was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Finally, the expression levels of the apoptosis-related protein (caspase 3, BAX and BCL2) in the testis were assessed by Western blotting. Compared with the sham group, the sperm quality in the RF group decreased significantly. The levels of secreting factors of SCs and the morphology of the testis showed an obvious change after RF exposure. The level of the secreting factor of LCs decreased significantly after RF exposure. The levels of cleaved caspase 3, caspase 3, and the BAX/BCL2 ratio in the testis increased markedly after RF exposure. These data collectively suggested that under the present experimental conditions, 220 MHz pulsed modulated RF exposure could impair sperm quality in rats, and the disruption of the secreting function of LCs and increased apoptosis of testis cells induced by the RF field might be accounted for by this damaging effect.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30977029

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Assessment of the effects of radiofrequency radiation on human colon epithelium cells

Tomruk A, Terzi YK, Guler GO. Assessment of the effects of radiofrequency radiation on human colon epithelium cells. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2019;120(4):299-308. doi: 10.4149/BLL_2019_050.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the possible effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at different frequencies for different exposure durations on caspase-dependent apoptosis pathways in human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29).

METHODS: HT-29 cells were exposed to 1800 MHz; 2100 MHz and 2600 MHz RFR for 3 h cont., 6 h int. and 6 h cont.. Cell viability measurements were performed by Trypan Blue exclusion assay and the gene expressions of CASP8, CASP9, CASP3 and CASP12 were analyzed using qRT-PCR.

RESULTS: Exposure to 2100 MHz RFR for all 3 durations of exposures was more effective for the ratio of the number of viable HT-29 cells w.r.t 1800 MHz RFR and 2600 MHz RFR exposures. After 2100 MHz RFR exposure, caspase activation increased significantly (for 3h cont. and 6 h int. exposures CASP8 and CASP9 levels; for 6 h cont. exposure CASP3 levels) (p 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Decreases in the cell viability of HT-29 cells for certain frequencies and also durations are consistent with significant increases in caspase activations. The results of caspase activation after 1800 MHz or 2600 MHz RFR exposures can be interpreted as the activation of different types of cell death pathway by caspase signaling cascades (Fig. 15, Ref. 56).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31023054

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Effect of cell phone radiation on neutrophil of mice

Pei Y, Gao H, Li L, An X, Tian Q. Effect of cell phone radiation on neutrophil of mice. Int J Radiat Biol. 2019 Apr 23:1-22. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2019.1607605.

Abstract

Purpose The present study aims to evaluate the effect of cell phone radiation on neutrophil of mice.

Materials and methods 40 male BALB/C mice were randomly broken up into 4 groups as control, blank control, TD-CDMA and LTE-Advanced groups respectively. Mice were exposed to cell phone radiation for a period of 6 weeks. Then numbers of neutrophil were detected by fully automatic haematology analyzer. Soft agar diffusion method was performed to assess the chemotaxis of neutrophils while the phagocytosis of neutrophils was determined by measuring the staphylococcus albus phagocytosis percentage. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry.

Results No significant differences were observed among the control and exposure groups regarding the numbers of neutrophils after 2 weeks' exposure to cell phone radiation, while the numbers of neutrophils in TD-SCDMA and LTE-Advanced groups were seen to rise after an exposure of 4 or 6 weeks. No effect was observed on chemotaxis of neutrophils due to phone radiation. The phagocytosis of neutrophils was decreased while the apoptosis were increased both in TD-SCDMA and LTE-Advanced groups after 6 weeks exposure.

Conclusions Mobile phone radiation could give rise to increase of neutrophil numbers yet with no effect whatever on neutrophils chemotaxis, and the radiation was likely to cause decrease of phagocytosis and induced apoptosis of neutrophils.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31012799

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Effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on circadian rhythm control in mice

Lundberg L, Sienkiewicz Z, Anthony DC, Broom KA. Effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields on circadian rhythm control in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Apr 4. doi: 10.1002/bem.22188.

Abstract

Artificial light and power frequency magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the built environment. Light is a potent zeitgeber but it is unclear whether power frequency magnetic fields can influence circadian rhythm control. To study this possibility, 8-12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 30 min starting at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14, 2 h into the dark period of the day) to 50 Hz magnetic fields at 580 μT using a pair of Helmholtz coils and/or a blue LED light at 700 lux or neither. Our experiments revealed an acute adrenal response to blue light, in terms of increased adrenal per1 gene expression, increased serum corticosterone levels, increased time spent sleeping, and decreased locomotor activity (in all cases, P < 0.0001) compared to an unexposed control group. There appeared to be no modulating effect of the magnetic fields on the response to light, and there was also no effect of the magnetic fields alone (in both cases, P > 0.05) except for a decrease in locomotor activity (P < 0.03). Gene expression of the cryptochromes cry1 and cry2 in the adrenals, liver, and hippocampus was also not affected by exposures (in all cases, P > 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that 50 Hz magnetic fields do not significantly affect the acute light response to a degree that can be detected in the adrenal response.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30945762

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The cellular effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on osteoblasts: A review

Galli C, Pedrazzi G, Guizzardi S. The cellular effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on osteoblasts: A review. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Mar 25. doi: 10.1002/bem.22187.

Abstract

Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have long been known to interact with living organisms and their cells and to bear the potential for therapeutic use. Among the most extensively investigated applications, the use of Pulsed EMFs (PEMFs) has proven effective to ameliorate bone healing in several studies, although the evidence is still inconclusive. This is due in part to our still-poor understanding of the mechanisms by which PEMFs act on cells and affect their functions and to an ongoing lack of consensus on the most effective parameters for specific clinical applications. The present review has compared in vitro studies on PEMFs on different osteoblast models, which elucidate potential mechanisms of action for PEMFs, up to the most recent insights into the role of primary cilia, and highlight the critical issues underlying at least some of the inconsistent results in the available literature

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30908726

Excerpt

Two main stimulation regimes possess the most evidence supporting their biological action: a 75 Hz, 1.5–2.5 mT PEMF stimulation with trapezoidal waves and a 0.3–1.8 mT, 15 Hz PRF PEMF stimulation with carrier frequency of about 4 kHz, which correspond to the most common, commercially available clinical stimulation devices. These choices appear to be rooted in habit or equipment availability rather than a systematic screening, which is still needed in the osteoblast field.

Taken together, the literature on in vitro studies on osteoblasts seem to solidly support an effect of PEMFs on osteoblastic differentiation, and several works have reported a modulation of the RANKL/OPG axis [Chang et al., 2005; Borsje et al., 2010; Jansen et al., 2010; He et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2018], which is central to bone homeostasis. Moreover, there is robust and consistent evidence that BMP‐2 [Bodamyali et al., 1998; Patterson et al., 2006; Selvamurugan et al., 2007; Yan et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2019], TGF‐β [Lohmann et al., 2000; Patterson et al., 2006; Selvamurugan et al., 2017], and Wnt [Lin et al., 2015; Zhou et al., 2015; Zhai et al., 2016] signaling are modulated in osteoblasts by PEMFs.

It has been long known that cell membrane appears at the center of the effects of PEMFs because of their action on ion channels, most noticeably calcium channels, and the release of bioactive factors and membrane trafficking. Most recently, primary cilia have been reported to play a role in transducing PEMF signaling to cells [Yan et al., 2015; Xie et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2018] and could provide a unifying theory to explain differences in cell responsiveness depending on their differentiation stage and the involvement of signaling pathways that could all be regulated at the receptor level by an effect on membrane trafficking. Besides biochemical signaling, therefore, a closer attention to morphology is probably needed in any new study on osteoblasts and PEMFs. Reports of morphological effects of PEMFs on cells are sporadic but consistent [Noriega‐Luna et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2018], and they might be central to a more correct interpretation of the latest data to better understand the cellular targets of PEMFs and therefore improve their clinical use.

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Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure and the Resting EEG: Exploring the Thermal Mechanism Hypothesis

Loughran SP, Verrender A, Dalecki A, Burdon CA, Tagami K, Park J, Taylor NAS, Croft RJ. Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure and the Resting EEG: Exploring the Thermal Mechanism Hypothesis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Apr 28;16(9). pii: E1505. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16091505.

Abstract

There is now strong evidence that radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure influences the human electroencephalogram (EEG). While effects on the alpha band of the resting EEG have been repeatedly shown, the mechanisms underlying that effect have not been established. The current study used well-controlled methods to assess the RF-EMF exposure effect on the EEG and determine whether that effect might be thermally mediated. Thirty-six healthy adults participated in a randomized, double-blind, counterbalanced provocation study. A water-perfusion suit (34 C) was worn throughout the study to negate environmental influences and stabilize skin temperature. Participants attended the laboratory on four occasions, the first being a calibration session and the three subsequent ones being exposure sessions. During each exposure session, EEG and skin temperature (8 sites) were recorded continuously during a baseline phase, and then during a 30 min exposure to a 920 MHz GSM-like signal (Sham, Low RF-EMF (1 W/kg) and High RF-EMF (2 W/kg)). Consistent with previous research, alpha EEG activity increased during the High exposure condition compared to the Sham condition. As a measure of thermoregulatory activation, finger temperature was found to be higher during both exposure conditions compared to the Sham condition, indicating for the first time that the effect on the EEG is accompanied by thermoregulatory changes and suggesting that the effect of RF-EMF on the EEG is consistent with a thermal mechanism.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/9/1505

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ION cyclotron resonance: Geomagnetic strategy for living systems?

Liboff AR. ION cyclotron resonance: Geomagnetic strategy for living systems? Electromagn Biol Med. 2019 Apr 27:1-6. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2019.1608234.

Abstract

Except for relatively few polarity reversals the magnitude of the magnetic dipole moment of the earth has remained constant since life first began, allowing evolutionary processes to integrate the geomagnetic field (GMF) into several biological functions. One of these, bearing the classical signature of an ion cyclotron resonance (ICR)-like interaction, results in biological change associated with enhanced proton transport. The wide range of cation masses over which this effect is found suggest a fundamental biological dependence on the GMF, one that functions equally well for electric as well as magnetic fields. Such generalization of ICR requires two things: transparency of tissues to the GMF and suitably tuned ELF resonant magnetic or electric fields. To complement the widely reported ICR responses to applied AC magnetic fields, we hypothesize the existence of weak endogenous ICR electric field oscillations within the cell. This equivalence implies that even in the absence of applied AC magnetic fields, biological systems will exhibit intrinsic GMF-dependent ion cyclotron resonance intracellular interactions. Many ICR effects that have been reported appear as antagonist pairs suggesting that the characteristics of the GMF have not only been incorporated into the genome but also appear to function in an endocrine-like manner.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31017814

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Cardiovascular response as a marker of environmental stress caused by variations in geomagnetic field and local weather

Pishchalnikova RY, Gurfinkel YI, Sarimov RM, Vasin AL, Sasonko ML, Matveeva TA, Binhi VN, Baranov MB. Cardiovascular response as a marker of environmental stress caused by variations in geomagnetic field and local weather. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control . 51:401-410. May 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bspc.2019.03.005

Highlights


• A Helmholtz-like magnetic field exposure system adapted for long-term experiments.
• Three modes of magnetic field exposure including geomagnetic storm have been used.
• Correlations of heart rate with magnetic field are criterion of cardiovascular response.
• Maximum cardiovascular response has been detected for the storm mode of exposure.
• Time-frequency representation of heart rate for each subject has individual character.

Abstract

We report the results of a physiological study that include ECG analysis, capillary blood velocity (CBV) data, and blood pressure (BP) measurements obtained under conditions of modified external magnetic field (MF). Each of eight volunteers was sequentially exposed to MFs of three different types for 22 h. A Helmholtz-like MF exposure system was used. The system was specially designed for long-term exposures of human beings to static and low frequency MFs. The MF of the first type reproduced an initially recorded geomagnetic storm (GS). The MF inductions of the other two types were about 55 and 49 μT, which corresponded to the natural local magnetic background and a slightly decreased MF, respectively. In all three cases, the environmental magnetic fluctuations were suppressed by the active Helmholtz system. The variability of RR intervals[ the time elapsed between two successive R-waves of the QRS signal on the electrocardiogram] was considered as a key indicator of cardiovascular response to the MFs and weather conditions. A time-frequency representation (TFR) and a frequency-frequency representation (FFR) were used for processing of the time series of RR intervals. It turned out that the transformation to TFR makes it possible to obtain the characteristic matrix of RR intervals; such a matrix can be used as a subject identifier. FFR was used to calculate correlations of RR intervals with the components of the MFs. The averaged correlation coefficients of RR intervals with the Bx and By components appeared significantly higher (p < 0.001) during the Storm mode in comparison with control. Thus, it is shown that artificial geomagnetic storm can cause a detectable cardiovascular response.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1746809419300795

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Evaluation of in vivo exposure to ELF magnetic fields on plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats

Wyszkowska J, Jędrzejewski T, Piotrowski J, Wojciechowska A, Stankiewicz M, Kozak W. Evaluation of the influence of in vivo exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):909-917. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1503428.

Abstract

PURPOSE: Epidemiological data suggest that there is a link between exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs), immune response, and the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. The exact nature of this phenomenon remains speculative and requires detailed laboratory investigation. In the present study, we evaluate changes in plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines as well as alternations of the hematological parameters in rats exposed to an ELF-MF.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were repeatedly exposed for either 1 h/day for 7 days, or continuously for 24 h, to a sinusoidal ELF-MF (50 Hz, 7 mT). Control groups were sham exposed for either 1 h/day for 7 days, or continuously for 24 h, respectively. The levels of cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma obtained from blood samples were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in blood parameters were determined using an automatic hematology analyzer in whole blood samples immediately after collection.

RESULTS: We found that a single continuous (lasting 24 h) exposure provoked a significant increase of the plasma IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-2 levels, and caused an elevation in blood parameters, such as white blood cells, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels. In contrast, however, repetitive exposure of rats to an ELF-MF for 1 h/day for 7 days did not lead to any changes in plasma levels of cytokines and hematological counts.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on these data we conclude that exposure duration (dose-response) plays a significant role in the immune response, specifically at the cellular level. While single 24 h-lasting exposure provoked changes that indicate an immune alarm stimulation, under the conditions which are typical for therapeutic use of ELF-MFs (repeated short daily exposure) the immune potentially harmful response has not been observed.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30028649

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Effects of ELF EMF on c-Maf, STAT6, and RORα expressions in spleen and thymus of rat

Mahaki H, Jabarivasal N, Sardarian K, Zamani A. The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on c-Maf, STAT6, and RORα expressions in spleen and thymus of rat. Electromagn Biol Med. 2019 Apr 24:1-7. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2019.1608832.

Abstract

The study investigated the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) exposure at different magnetic flux densities on genes expression of transcription factor Maf (c-Maf), signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), and retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) in the spleen and thymus of rats. Eighty adult male rats were separated into four ELF-EMFs exposed and were exposed to magnetic flux densities of 1, 100, 500, and 2000 µT at a frequency of 50 Hz for 2 h daily for up to 60 d. All rats were intraperitoneally immunized on d 31, 44, and 58 of exposure. The experimental results showed that the expression levels of c-Maf, STAT6, and RORα in the thymus were not significantly changed at different magnetic flux densities. The expression levels of RORα and c-Maf were significantly downregulated at the densities of 1 and 100 µT, while the expression of STAT6 was only significantly decreased at the density of 100 µT. In conclusion, low magnetic flux densities of ELF-EMFs may reduce the expression levels of c-Maf, STAT6, and RORα genes in the spleen.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31017814

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Effects of continuous exposure to power frequency electric fields on soybean Glycine max

Li X, Liu X, Wan B, Li X, Li M, Zhu H, Hua H. Effects of continuous exposure to power frequency electric fields on soybean Glycine max. J Environ Radioact. 2019 Apr 5;204:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.03.026.

Abstract

With the increasing density of high voltage transmission systems, the potential risks and hazards of environmental electric fields (EFs) generated by these systems to surrounding organisms is becoming a source of public concern. To evaluate the effect of environmental EFs on plants, we used soybean as a model and systematically evaluated the effect of continuous exposure to different intensities (0 kV/m, 2 kV/m, and 10 kV/m) of power frequency EFs on agronomic characters, yield, nutrient contents, protective enzyme activities, and gene transcription. We found that the effects on soybean were more pronounced when plants were exposed to EF during development (especially at the seedling stage) than when they were exposed at maturity. The functional leaf number, stem diameter, plant dry weight, and pod number were largely unaffected by EF, while the germination rate and protective enzyme activities increased with increasing EF intensity. In plants exposed to low-intensity EF (2 kV/m), some agronomic characters, including chlorophyll content, plant height, and bean dry weight, as well as the soluble sugar and total protein contents, were significantly higher than those of plants exposed to high-intensity EF (10 kV/m) and control plants (0 kV/m). Through transcriptome analysis, we found that 2,977 genes were significantly up-regulated and 1,462 genes were down-regulated when plants were exposed to EF. These differentially expressed genes mainly encode ribosome proteins and related enzymes involved in carbon metabolism pathway, providing a novel perspective for understanding molecular mechanisms underpinning the responses to EF stress in soybean.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30959328

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Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
Website: https://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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