Electromagnetic Radiation Safety, 7 May 2018
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Radio Frequency Radiation
Numerical evaluation of human exposure to WiMax patch antenna in tablet or laptop
Siervo B, Morelli MS, Landini L, Hartwig V. Numerical evaluation of human exposure to WiMax patch antenna in tablet or laptop. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Apr 30. doi: 10.1002/bem.22128.
The use of wireless communication devices, such as tablets or laptops, is increasing among children. Only a few studies assess specific energy absorption rate (SAR) due to exposure from wireless-enabled tablets and laptops, in particular with Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) technology. This paper reports the estimation of the interaction between an E-shaped patch antenna (3.5 GHz) and human models, by means of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Specifically, four different human models (young adult male, young adult female, pre-teenager female, male child) in different exposure conditions (antenna at different distances from the human model, in different positions, and orientations) were considered and whole-body, 10 and 1 g local SAR and magnetic field value (Bmax) were evaluated. From our results, in some worst-case scenarios involving male and female children's exposure, the maximum radiofrequency energy absorption (hot spots) is located in more sensitive organs such as eye, genitals, and breast.
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) is a communication system based on IEEE 802.16 , belonging to fourth generation (4G) technology with well‐known Long‐term Evolution (LTE).
In conclusion, the results of our study show the importance of simulating exposure taking into account the antenna‐body mutual position for the exact localization of maximum SAR values (“hot spots”). Although the average SAR values do not exceed the recommended limits for all simulated exposure conditions except one, the maximum SAR values in some scenarios are located in more sensitive organs, which are the eyes, genitals, and breast. This is particularly important for children. Their entire organism is in a process of development and it is not possible to predict long‐lasting problems that might occur as a result of exposure to EM fields at an early age. Nevertheless, recently Barnes and Greenebaum  presented possible theoretical mechanisms and experimental data concerning long‐term exposures to RF magnetic fields, speculating that they can be responsible for changing in radical concentrations. Moreover, the values for the SAR reported here are expected to be in a range that could change the concentration of reactive oxygen species, and long‐term exposures may be significant for some health effects [De Iuliis et al., 2009; Kang et al., 2014; Wang and Zhang, 2017].
Hence, until a more exhaustive monitoring of the potential risk of exposure from wireless‐enabled devices is available, exposures of the young should be As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To prevent any potential hazard and damage from the use of wireless devices, some simple rules, such as keeping the device as far away as possible from the eyes, genitals, and breast, should be established.
Representativeness and repeatability of microenvironmental personal and head exposures to RF EMF
Thielens A, Van den Bossche M, Brzozek C, Bhatt CR, Abramson MJ, Benke G, Martens L, Joseph W. Representativeness and repeatability of microenvironmental personal and head exposures to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. Environ Res. 2018 Apr;162:81-96. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.12.017.
• First time assessment of head exposure to RF-EMF in uncontrolled environments, in 15 microenvironments in Melbourne, Australia.• We show that our measurement protocol is repeatable over time.• We show that the paths selected in our protocol are representative for the larger areas in which they are defined.• Exposure to RF-EMF is higher in more dense urban areas than in less populated suburban areas in the outskirts of the city.
The aims of this study were to: i) investigate the repeatability and representativeness of personal radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure measurements, across different microenvironments, ii) perform simultaneous evaluations of personal RF-EMF exposures for the whole body and the head, iii) validate the data obtained with a head-worn personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) against those obtained with an on-body worn personal exposimeter (PEM). Data on personal and head RF-EMF exposures were collected by performing measurements across 15 microenvironments in Melbourne, Australia. A body-worn PEM and a head-worn PDE were used for measuring body and head exposures, respectively. The summary statistics obtained for total RF-EMF exposure showed a high representativeness (r2 > 0.66 for two paths in the same area) and a high repeatability over time (r2 > 0.87 for repetitions of the same path). The median head exposure in the 900MHz downlink band ranged between 0.06V/m and 0.31V/m. The results obtained during simultaneous measurements using the two devices showed high correlations (0.42 < r2 < 0.94). The highest mean total RF-EMF exposure was measured in Melbourne's central business district (0.89V/m), whereas the lowest mean total exposure was measured in a suburban residential area (0.05V/m). This study shows that personal RF-EMF microenvironmental measurements in multiple microenvironments have high representativeness and repeatability over time. The personal RF-EMF exposure levels (i.e. body and head exposures) demonstrated moderate to high correlations.
Also see: Cell Phone Towers are Largest Contributor to Environmental Radiofrequency Radiation
Spatial and temporal variability of personal exposure to RF EMF in children in Europe
Birks LE, Struchen B, Eeftens M, Huss A, Gajšek P, Kheifets L, Gallastegi M, van Wel L, Dalmau-Bueno A, Estarlich M, Fernandez M, Meder IK, Ferrero A, Jiménez-Zabala A, Torrent M, Vrijkotte TGM, Cardis E, Olsen J, Valič B, Vermeulen R, Vrijheid M, Röösli M, Guxens M. OP VI – 5 Spatial and temporal variability of personal exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields in children in europe. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 75(Suppl 1):A13.1-A13. March 2018. DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2018-ISEEabstracts.31
Conference: ISEE Young 2018, Early Career Researchers Conference on Environmental Epidemiology – Together for a Healthy Environment, 19–20 March 2018, Freising, Germany
Background/aim Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has rapidly increased and little is known about exposure levels in children. This study aims to describe personal RF-EMF environmental exposure levels from handheld devices and fixed site transmitters in European children and its day-to-day and year-to-year repeatability.
Methods Environmental RF-EMF exposure (µW/m²) was measured in 529 children (ages 8–18) in Denmark, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Switzerland, and Spain using personal portable exposure metres over 3 days in 2014–2016, and repeated in 28 children one year later. Metres captured exposure every 4 s. Activity diaries collected children’s location and use of mobile devices. Six general frequency bands were defined: total, digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT), television and radio antennas (broadcast), mobile phones (uplink), mobile phone base stations (downlink), and WiFi. We used mixed effects models with region random effects to estimate associations between mobile device use and exposure. Day-to-day and year-to-year repeatability was calculated through Spearman correlations.
Results Median total exposure was 75.5 µW/m². Downlink was the largest contributor to total exposure (27.2 µW/m²) followed by broadcast (9.9 µW/m²). Exposure from uplink was lower (4.7 µW/m²). WiFi and DECT contributed very little to exposure levels. Exposure was higher during day (94.2 µW/m²) than night (23.0 µW/m²), and slightly higher during weekends than weekdays, although varying across regions. Exposure was generally highest while children were travelling (171.3 µW/m²) and outside (157.0 µW/m²). Children living in urban environments had higher exposure. Older children, girls, and users of mobile phones had higher uplink exposure but not total exposure. Repeatability was high for total, downlink, and broadcast in the year-to-year repeatability (rho between 0.54 and 0.66).
Conclusion Largest contributors to total RF-EMF exposure were downlink and broadcast, which was consistent one year later. Location of home (region and urbanicity) was associated with higher exposure. More frequent mobile phone use was associated with higher uplink exposure. It is important to continue evaluating RF-EMF exposure in children as mobile devices, use habits, and technologies continue to evolve.
Wireless Phone Use and Risk of Adult Glioma: Evidence from Meta-analysis
Wang P, Hou C, Li Y, Zhou D. Wireless Phone Use and Risk of Adult Glioma: Evidence from Meta-analysis. World Neurosurgery. Available online 28 April 2018.
Objective Wireless phone use has been increasing rapidly and is associated with the risk of glioma. Many studies have been conducted on this association, but did not reach an agreement. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the possible association between wireless phone use and the risk of adult glioma.
Methods Eligible studies were identified by searching Pubmed and Embase till July 2017. The random- or fixed-effects model was used to combine the results depending on the heterogeneity of the analysis. Publication bias was evaluated using Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s regression asymmetry test. Subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate the possible influence of these variables.
Results A total of 10 studies about the association of wireless phone use and the risk of glioma were included in this meta-analysis. The combined odd’s ratio (OR) of adult glioma associated with ever use of wireless phone was 1.03 (95% CI=0.92–1.16) with high heterogeneity (I2=54.2%, P=0.013). In the subgroup analyses, no significant association was found among tumor location in the temporal lobe and adult glioma risk, with ORs of 1.26 (95% CI=0.87–1.84), 0.93 (95%CI=0.69–1.24), 1.61 (95%CI=0.78–3.33), respectively. Significant association was found in long-term users (≥10 years) with OR 1.33 (95%CI =1.05–1.67) and risk of glioma.
Conclusions Our analysis suggested that ever use of wireless phone was not significantly associated with the risk of adult glioma, but could increase the risk in long-term users.
Recall of mobile phone usage and laterality in young people: The multinational Mobi-Expo study
Goedhart G, van Wel L, Langer CE, de Llobet Viladoms P, Wiart J, Hours M, Kromhout H, Benke G, Bouka E, Bruchim R, Choi KH, Eng A, Ha M, Huss A, Kiyohara K, Kojimahara N, Krewski D, Lacour B, 't Mannetje A, Maule M, Migliore E, Mohipp C, Momoli F, Petridou ET, Radon K, Remen T, Sadetzki S, Sim M, Weinmann T, Cardis E, Vrijheid M, Vermeulen R. Recall of mobile phone usage and laterality in young people: The multinational Mobi-Expo study. Environ Res. 2018 Apr 25;165:150-157. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.04.018.
OBJECTIVE: To study recall of mobile phone usage, including laterality and hands-free use, in young people.
METHODS: Actual mobile phone use was recorded among volunteers aged between 10 and 24 years from 12 countries by the software application XMobiSense and was compared with self-reported mobile phone use at 6 and 18 months after using the application. The application recorded number and duration of voice calls, number of text messages, amount of data transfer, laterality (% of call time the phone was near the right or left side of the head, or neither), and hands-free usage. After data cleaning, 466 participants were available for the main analyses (recorded vs. self-reported phone use after 6 months).
RESULTS: Participants were on average 18.6 years old (IQR 15.2-21.8 years). The Spearman correlation coefficients between recorded and self-reported (after 6 months) number and duration of voice calls were 0.68 and 0.65, respectively. Number of calls was on average underestimated by the participants (adjusted geometric mean ratio (GMR) self-report/recorded = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.47-0.58), while duration of calls was overestimated (GMR=1.32, 95%, CI = 1.15-1.52). The ratios significantly differed by country, age, maternal educational level, and level of reported phone use, but not by time of the interview (6 vs. 18 months). Individuals who reported low mobile phone use underestimated their use, while individuals who reported the highest level of phone use were more likely to overestimate their use. Individuals who reported using the phone mainly on the right side of the head used it more on the right (71.1%) than the left (28.9%) side. Self-reported left side users, however, used the phone only slightly more on the left (53.3%) than the right (46.7%) side. Recorded percentage hands-free use (headset, speaker mode, Bluetooth) increased with increasing self-reported frequency of hands-free device usage. Frequent (≥50% of call time) reported headset or speaker mode use corresponded with 17.1% and 17.2% of total call time, respectively, that was recorded as hands-free use.
DISCUSSION: These results indicate that young people can recall phone use moderately well, with recall depending on the amount of phone use and participants' characteristics. The obtained information can be used to calibrate self-reported mobile use to improve estimation of radiofrequency exposure from mobile phones.
Mobile phone EMF induced DNA damage in human ear canal hair follicle cells
Akdag M, Dasdag S, Canturk F, Akdag MZ. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phones induced DNA damage in human ear canal hair follicle cells. Electromagn Biol Med. 2018 Apr 18:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2018.1463246.
The aim of this study was to investigate effect of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted from mobile phones on DNA damage in follicle cells of hair in the ear canal. The study was carried out on 56 men (age range: 30-60 years old) in four treatment groups with n = 14 in each group. The groups were defined as follows: people who did not use a mobile phone (Control), people use mobile phones for 0-30 min/day (second group), people use mobile phones for 30-60 min/day (third group) and people use mobile phones for more than 60 min/day (fourth group). Ear canal hair follicle cells taken from the subjects were analyzed by the Comet Assay to determine DNA damages. The Comet Assay parameters measured were head length, tail length, comet length, percentage of head DNA, tail DNA percentage, tail moment, and Olive tail moment. Results of the study showed that DNA damage indicators were higher in the RFR exposure groups than in the control subjects. In addition, DNA damage increased with the daily duration of exposure. In conclusion, RFR emitted from mobile phones has a potential to produce DNA damage in follicle cells of hair in the ear canal. Therefore, mobile phone users have to pay more attention when using wireless phones.
Participants using smart phones with similar SAR values, were used. The head peak SAR values of the smart phones used by the participants, ranged between 0.45–0.97 W/kg.
Comet Assay was performed by researchers who were unaware of which group the hair samples were from.
In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that exposure to radiation from mobile phones can lead to DNA single-strand breaks, therefore, to DNA damage. The results of this study indicated a positive correlation between duration of exposure and DNA damage. We consider that the result of this study might be important in terms of the balance involved in DNA damage and repair mechanisms.
1.8 GHz EMF affects morphology, DNA-related Raman spectra & mitochondrial functions in human lympho-monocytes
Lasalvia M, Scrima R, Perna G, Piccoli C, Capitanio N, Biagi PF, Schiavulli L, Ligonzo T, Centra M, Casamassima G, Ermini A, Capozzi V.
Exposure to 1.8 GHz electromagnetic fields affects morphology, DNA-related Raman spectra and mitochondrial functions in human lympho-monocytes. PLoS One. 2018 Feb 20;13(2):e0192894. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192894. eCollection 2018.
Blood is a fluid connective tissue of human body, where it plays vital functions for the nutrition, defense and well-being of the organism. When circulating in peripheral districts, it is exposed to some physical stresses coming from outside the human body, as electromagnetic fields (EMFs) which can cross the skin. Such fields may interact with biomolecules possibly inducing non thermal-mediated biological effects at the cellular level. In this study, the occurrence of biochemical/biological modifications in human peripheral blood lympho-monocytes exposed in a reverberation chamber for times ranging from 1 to 20 h to EMFs at 1.8 GHz frequency and 200 V/m electric field strength was investigated. Morphological analysis of adherent cells unveiled, in some of these, appearance of an enlarged and deformed shape after EMFs exposure. Raman spectra of the nuclear compartment of cells exposed to EMFs revealed the onset of biochemical modifications, mainly consisting in the reduction of the DNA backbone-linked vibrational modes. Respirometric measurements of mitochondrial activity in intact lympho-monocytes resulted in increase of the resting oxygen consumption rate after 20 h of exposure, which was coupled to a significant increase of the FoF1-ATP synthase-related oxygen consumption. Notably, at lower time-intervals of EMFs exposure (i.e. 5 and 12 h) a large increase of the proton leak-related respiration was observed which, however, recovered at control levels after 20 h exposure. Confocal microscopy analysis of the mitochondrial membrane potential supported the respiratory activities whereas no significant variations in the mitochondrial mass/morphology was observed in EMFs-exposed lympho-monocytes. Finally, altered redox homeostasis was shown in EMFs-exposed lympho-monocytes, which progressed differently in nucleated cellular subsets. This results suggest the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms put in action, likely via redox signaling, to compensate for early impairments of the oxidative phosphorylation system caused by exposure to EMFs. Overall the data presented warn for health safety of people involved in long-term exposure to electromagnetic fields, although further studies are required to pinpoint the leukocyte cellular subset(s) selectively targeted by the EMFs action and the mechanisms by which it is achieved.
Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5819811/
Temperature induced in human organs due to near-field and far-field electromagnetic exposure effects
Wessapan T, Rattanadech P. Temperature induced in human organs due to near-field and far-field electromagnetic exposure effects. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 119:65-76. April 2018.
• The field radiation pattern and the operating frequency significantly influence the temperature distribution in each organ.
• The testis temperature increases are lower than the thresholds for the induction of infertility for both 900 and 1800 MHz.
• For distances less than 2 m, the SAR values are higher than the general public exposure limit of ICNIRP.
The main biological effect from exposure to electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a temperature rise in the human body and its sensitive organs, which results from absorbing electromagnetic field (EMF) power. EM near-field and far-field sources, which have different operating frequencies and exposure distances, result in different EMF distribution patterns and EMF power absorptions by the human body. Actually, the severity of the physiological effect can occur with small temperature increases in the sensitive organs. However, the EM absorption characteristics and the temperature increase distribution resulting from different field radiation patterns from EM sources are not well established. To adequately explain the biological effects that are associated with the EMF energy absorption, a systematic study of different EMF distribution patterns and how they interact with body tissue is needed. This study considers the computationally determined specific absorption rate (SAR) and the heat transfer in a heterogeneous human torso model with internal organs exposed to near-field and far-field EM radiations at different frequencies. The electric field, SAR, and the temperature distributions in various organs during exposure to EMFs are obtained through the numerical simulation of EM wave propagation and an unsteady bioheat transfer model. The findings indicate that the field radiation pattern and the operating frequency of an EM source significantly influence the electric field, the SAR, and the temperature distribution in each organ. Moreover, the tissue’s dielectric properties also affect the temperature distribution patterns within the body tissue. These findings enable researchers to more accurately determine the exposure limits for the power output of wireless transmitters, and the distance that they should remain from the humans.
Does acute RF EMF exposure affect visual event-related potentials in healthy adults?
Dalecki A, Loughran SP, Verrender A, Burdon CA, Taylor NAS, Croft RJ. Does acute radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure affect visual event-related potentials in healthy adults? Clinical Neurophysiology. 129(5):901-908. May 2018.
Objective To use improved methods to address the question of whether acute exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) affects early (80–200 ms) sensory and later (180–600 ms) cognitive processes as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs).
Methods Thirty-six healthy subjects completed a visual discrimination task during concurrent exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like, 920 MHz signal with peak-spatial specific absorption rate for 10 g of tissue of 0 W/kg of body mass (Sham), 1 W/kg (Low RF) and 2 W/kg (High RF). A fully randomised, counterbalanced, double-blind design was used.
Results P1 amplitude was reduced (p = .02) and anterior N1 latency was increased (p = .04) during Exposure compared to Sham. There were no effects on any other ERP latencies or amplitudes.
Conclusions RF-EMF exposure may affect early perceptual (P1) and preparatory motor (anterior N1) processes. However, only two ERP indices, out of 56 comparisons, were observed to differ between RF-EMF exposure and Sham, suggesting that these observations may be due to chance.
It should be noted that the RF-EMF exposure in the present study was a simulated GSM signal, delivered via planar antenna (Murbach et al., 2012). This planar antenna delivers a relatively homogenous SAR distribution to brain structures in the exposed hemisphere (Murbach et al., 2012).... We note that, in contrast to the homogenous SAR distribution produced by the planar antenna used in the present study, exposures from individual mobile phones are far more localised, such that SARs in brain regions more distant from the mobile phone are markedly smaller than those more proximal to the phone (Boutry et al., 2008; Loughran et al., 2008). Therefore, given the lack of effects on central nervous system function under conditions where the maximal SAR is delivered to the entire hemisphere, it is unlikely that a markedly smaller, localised SAR exposure, such as that which might be present during mobile phone use, would affect the processes assessed in the present study.
This study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia [Grant 1042464] and the Electric Power Research Institute [Grant 00-10003301].
Conflict of interest statement: None.
Commentary: Geographic Variations in Incidence of Glioblastoma & Prognostic Factors Predictive of Overall Survival in US Adults from 2004–2013
Mortazavi SMJ. Commentary: Geographic Variations in the Incidence of Glioblastoma and Prognostic Factors Predictive of Overall Survival in US Adults from 2004–2013. Front Aging Neurosci. 2018; 10: 105. Published online 2018 Apr 12. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2018.00105.
Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5906709/
See the article "Geographic Variations in the Incidence of Glioblastoma and Prognostic Factors Predictive of Overall Survival in US Adults from 2004–2013" in volume 9, 352. Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5681990/
Tumor-treating fields as a fourth treating modality for glioblastoma: a meta-analysis
Magouliotis DE, Asprodini EK, Svokos KA, Tasiopoulou VS, Svokos AA, Toms SA. Tumor-treating fields as a fourth treating modality for glioblastoma: a meta-analysis. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2018 Apr 25. doi: 10.1007/s00701-018-3536-6. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: We aim to review the available literature on patients suffering from glioblastoma treated with tumor-treating fields (TTFields) plus radio chemotherapy or conventional radio chemotherapy alone, to compare the efficacy and safety of the two methods.
METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Six studies met the inclusion criteria incorporating 1806 patients for the qualitative analysis and 1769 for the quantitative analysis.
RESULTS: This study reveals increased median overall survival (weighted mean difference (WMD) 3.29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.37, 4.21]; p < 0.00001), survival at 1 year (odds ratio (OR) 1.81 [95% CI 1.41, 2.32]; p < 0.00001) and 2 years (OR 2.33 [95% CI 1.73, 3.14]; p < 0.00001), and median progression-free survival (WMD 2.35 [95% CI 1.76, 2.93]; p < 0.00001) along with progression-free survival at 6 months (WMD 6.86 [95% CI 5.91, 7.81]; p < 0.00001) for the patients treated with TTFields. Survival at 3 years was comparable between the two groups. TTFields were associated with fewer adverse events compared to chemotherapy along with similar incidence of skin irritation.
CONCLUSIONS: TTFields are a safe and efficient novel treatment modality. More randomized controlled studies, with longer follow-up, are necessary to further assess the clinical outcomes of TTFields.
Electronics in fluorescent bulbs & LEDs cause malignant melanoma in indoor office workers & tanning bed users
Milham S, Stetzer D. The electronics in fluorescent bulbs and light emitting diodes (LED), rather than ultraviolet radiation, cause increased malignant melanoma incidence in indoor office workers and tanning bed users. Medical Hypotheses. 116:33-39. Jul 2018.
The epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has a number of facets that do not fit with sunlight and ultraviolet light as the primary etiologic agents. Indoor workers have higher incidence and mortality rates of CMM than outdoor workers; CMM occurs in body locations never exposed to sunlight; CMM incidence is increasing in spite of use of UV blocking agents and small changes in solar radiation.
Installation of two new fluorescent lights in the milking parlor holding area of a Minnesota dairy farm in 2015 caused an immediate drop in milk production. This lead to measurement of body amperage in humans exposed to modern non-incandescent lighting. People exposed to old and new fluorescent lights, light emitting diodes (LED) and compact fluorescent lights (CFL) had body amperage levels above those considered carcinogenic. We hypothesize that modern electric lighting is a significant health hazard, a carcinogen, and is causing increasing CMM incidence in indoor office workers and tanning bed users. These lights generate dirty electricity (high frequency voltage transients), radio frequency (RF) radiation, and increase body amperage, all of which have been shown to be carcinogenic. This could explain the failure of ultraviolet blockers to stem the malignant melanoma pandemic. Tanning beds and non-incandescent lighting could be made safe by incorporating a grounded Faraday cage which allows passage of ultraviolet and visible light frequencies and blocks other frequencies. Modern electric lighting should be fabricated to be electrically clean.
Evaluation of hypothesis
To test this hypothesis, tanning beds with and without grounded Faraday cages which allow passage of UV light and block other electromagnetic frequencies should be tested with a body amperage meter and with animal malignant melanoma models. Incandescent (no internal or external electronics) and fluorescent tanning bulbs of the same UV frequency (wavelength) and intensity should also be tested similarly. Modern non-incandescent lighting of all types should be tested and compared to incandescent lights and lights fabricated to be electrically clean. Case/control and cohort studies of CMM cases focused on lighting exposures should be undertaken.
A proposed explanation for thunderstorm asthma and leukemia risk near high-voltage power lines: a supported hypothesis
Redmayne M. A proposed explanation for thunderstorm asthma and leukemia risk near high-voltage power lines: a supported hypothesis
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Published online 30 Apr 2018.
Thunderstorm asthma and increased childhood leukemia risk near high-voltage power lines (HVPL) are occurrences whose mechanism of effect is not fully understood.
This paper proposes and discusses a key similarity: both thunderstorms and HVPL generate a high enough electrical field in the environment to ionize nearby air and air-borne particles.
I argue that the repeatedly demonstrated acute asthma response to pollen-laden air during thunderstorms is largely due to ionization of air-borne allergens, which adhere more readily and in greater quantity in the lungs than non-ionized particles. If these bind to mucous or phagocytic cells, it would enhance immune response. A rapid temperature drop and high ozone also seem to be drivers of thunderstorm asthma.
This causal nexus provides strong support for the parallel situation of prolonged exposure to ionized particles near HVPL and an increased rate of childhood leukemia. Here, it is proposed that upwind carcinogens are ionized when passing HVPL and then residential and business areas. Published evidence for most steps are presented, but have not previously been published as a coherent whole, nor has it been suggested that the inhaled ionized micro-particle explanation for acute asthma may also explain development of childhood leukemia over time.
The demonstrated series of events leading to increased deposition and retention of ionized particles in airways provides support for explaining both adverse health outcomes: acute thunderstorm asthma and increased risk of childhood leukemia near HVPL. Further support for this explanation of both outcomes is provided by effects of on-going proximity to highways.
Alteration of adaptive behaviors of progeny after maternal mobile phone exposure
Petitdant N, Lecomte A, Robidel F, Gamez, C, Blazy K, Villégier A-S. Alteration of adaptive behaviors of progeny after maternal mobile phone exposure. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 25(11):10894-10903. Apr 2018.
Exposure of pregnant women to radiofrequency (RF) devices raises questions on their possible health consequences for their progeny. We examined the hazard threshold of gestational RF on the progeny's glial homeostasis, sensory-motor gating, emotionality, and novelty seeking and tested whether maternal immune activation would increase RF toxicity. Pregnant dams were daily restrained with loop antennas adjoining the abdomen (fetus body specific absorption rates (SAR): 0, 0.7, or 2.6 W/kg) and received three lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intra-peritoneal injections (0 or 80 mu g/kg). Scores in the prepulse startle inhibition, fear conditioning, open field, and elevated plus maze were assessed at adolescence and adulthood. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and interleukines-1 beta (ILs) were quantified. LPS induced a SAR-dependent reduction of the prepulse startle inhibition in adults. Activity in the open field was reduced at 2.6 W/kg at adolescence. GFAP and ILs, emotional memory, and anxiety-related behaviors were not modified. These data support the hypothesis that maternal immune activation increased the developmental RF exposure-induced long-term neurobiological impairments. These data support the fact that fetuses who receive combined environmental exposures with RF need special attention for protection.
GD 1 dams were randomly assigned to one RF-EMF emission power group (0 (sham), 1 or 4 W) or to the cage control group (no daily restraint). Half of each RF-EMF group was randomly assigned to receive vehicle (saline) or LPS intraperitoneal injections (80 μg/ml/kg, E. coli, serotype 055:B5, phenol extraction Sigma-Aldrich, MO) at GD 15, 17 and 19 (n = 6–9/group). At birth, the number of pups per litter was recorded. At post-natal day (PND) 3, litters were adjusted to four males by reduction or adoption.
According to the finite difference time domain calculations, numerical dosimetry indicated 20 GD-averaged fetus whole body SAR of 0.7 +/− 1.5 W/kg for 1 W and 2,6 +/− 6 W/kg for 4 W emitting power.
To conclude, our study is the first to highlight gestational inflammation-induced vulnerability towards RF-EMF exposure on the ability to filtrate sensory information. Cerebral impairments were SAR-dependent supporting the causal relationship between EMF-RF exposure and deficits. RF-EMF levels tested in this study may surround the possible toxic threshold for gestational RF-EMF. These data with those of other studies support the fact that special attention should be devoted to the protection of embryos and fetuses that can be co-exposed to environmental factors and EMFs at diverse frequencies and intensities.
Effects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field on microstructure and bone metabolism of femur in mice
Guo L, Zhang JP, Zhang KY, Wang HB, Wang H, An GZ, Zhou Y, Meng GL, Ding DR. Effects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field on microstructure and bone metabolism of femur in mice. Bioelectromagnetics. Published online Apr 30, 2018.
To investigate the effects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency (RF) field on bone microstructure and metabolism of femur in mice, C57BL/6 mice (male, age 4 weeks) were whole‐body exposed or sham exposed to 1.8 GHz RF field. Specific absorption rates of whole body and bone were approximately 2.70 and 1.14 W/kg (6 h/day for 28 days). After exposure, microstructure and morphology of femur were observed by microcomputed tomography (micro‐CT), Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) and Masson staining. Subsequently, bone parameters were calculated directly from the reconstructed images, including structure model index, bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume/total volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation. Biomarkers that reflect bone metabolism, such as serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone‐specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and tartrate‐resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP‐5b), were determined by biochemical assay methods. Micro‐CT and histology results showed that there was no significant change in bone microstructure and the above parameters in RF group, compared with sham group. The activity of serum ALP and BALP increased 29.47% and 16.82%, respectively, in RF group, compared with sham group (P < 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the activity of serum TRACP‐5b between RF group and sham group. In brief, under present experimental conditions, we did not find support for an effect of 1.8 GHz RF field on bone microstructure; however, it might promote metabolic function of osteoblasts in mice.
835 MHz RF-EMF decreases expression of calcium channels, inhibits apoptosis, but induces autophagy in mouse hippocampus
Kim JH, Sohn UD, Kim HG, Kim HR. Exposure to 835 MHz RF-EMF decreases the expression of calcium channels, inhibits apoptosis, but induces autophagy in the mouse hippocampus. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018 May;22(3):277-289. doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2018.22.3.277.
The exponential increase in the use of mobile communication has triggered public concerns about the potential adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phones on the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we explored the relationship between calcium channels and apoptosis or autophagy in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice after RF-EMF exposure with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 4 weeks. Firstly, the expression level of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), a key regulator of the entry of calcium ions into the cell, was confirmed by immunoblots. We investigated and confirmed that pan-calcium channel expression in hippocampal neurons were significantly decreased after exposure to RF-EMF. With the observed accumulation of autolysosomes in hippocampal neurons via TEM, the expressions of autophagy-related genes and proteins (e.g., LC3B-II) had significantly increased. However, down-regulation of the apoptotic pathway may contribute to the decrease in calcium channel expression, and thus lower levels of calcium in hippocampal neurons. These results suggested that exposure of RF-EMF could alter intracellular calcium homeostasis by decreasing calcium channel expression in the hippocampus; presumably by activating the autophagy pathway, while inhibiting apoptotic regulation as an adaptation process for 835 MHz RF-EMF exposure.
Open access paper: http://pdf.medrang.co.kr/paper/pdf/Kjpp/Kjpp022-03-06.pdf
Extremely Low Frequency Fields
Electric cars and EMI with cardiac implantable electronic devices: A cross-sectional evaluation
Lennerz C, O'Connor M, Horlbeck L, Michel J, Weigand S, Grebmer C, Blazek P, Brkic A, Semmler V, Haller B, Reents T, Hessling G, Deisenhofer I, Whittaker P, Lienkamp M, Kolb C. Letter: Electric cars and electromagnetic interference with cardiac implantable electronic devices: A cross-sectional evaluation. Annals of Internal Medicine. Apr 24, 2018.
See Hybrid & Electric Cars: Electromagnetic Radiation Risks for excerpts and link to paper.
Antitumor effect of static and ELF MF against nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma
Yuan LQ, Wang C, Zhu K, Li HM, Gu WZ, Zhou DM, Lai JQ, Zhou D, Lv Y, Tofani S, Chen X. The antitumor effect of static and extremely low frequency magnetic fields against nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 May 2. doi: 10.1002/bem.22124.
Certain magnetic fields (MF) have potential therapeutic antitumor effect whereas the underlying mechanism remains undefined. In this study, a well-characterized MF was applied to two common childhood malignancies, nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. This MF has a time-averaged total intensity of 5.1 militesla (mT), and was generated as a superimposition of a static and an extremely low frequency (ELF) MF in 50 Hertz (Hz). In nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma cell lines including G401, CHLA255, and N2a, after MF exposure of 2 h per day, the cell viability decreased significantly after 2 days. After 3 days, inhibition rates of 17-22% were achieved in these cell lines. Furthermore, the inhibition rate was positively associated with exposure time. On the other hand, when using static MF only while maintaining the same time-averaged intensity of 5.1 mT, the inhibition rate was decreased. Thus, both time and combination of ELF field were positively associated with the inhibitory effect of this MF. Exposure to the field decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Combinational use of MF together with chemotherapeutics cisplatin (DDP) was performed in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In cell lines, combinational treatment further increased the inhibition rate compared with single use of either DDP or MF. In G401 nephroblastoma tumor model in nude mice, combination of MF and DDP resulted in significant decrease of tumor mass, and the side effect was limited in mild liver injury. MF exposure by itself did not hamper liver or kidney functions. In summary, the antitumor effect of an established MF against neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma is reported, and this field has the potential to be used in combination with DDP to achieve increased efficacy and reduce side effects in these two childhood malignancies.
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety