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12 November 2019

32 New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (5 November 2019)

32 New Papers on Electromagnetic Fields and Biology or Health (5 November 2019)
saferemr.com, 5 November 2019

Dr. Joel Moscowitz, University of California Berkeley, has been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August, 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below (title only with the exception of the first 3 papers listed).

The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 800 scientific papers. This 563-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:

Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.

Recent Papers

The Significance of Primary Tumors in the NTP Study of Chronic Rat Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation]

Lin JC. The Significance of Primary Tumors in the NTP Study of Chronic Rat Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 20(11):18-21. Nov 2019. DOI:10.1109/MMM.2019.2935361


Most media accounts of the U.S. National Toxicology Program's (NTP's) final report have understandably focused on the statistically significant finding of "clear evidence" that both GSM and code-division multiple access (CDMA)-modulated 900-MHz wireless RF radiation led to the development of malignant schwannoma, a rare form of tumor, in the hearts of male rats. In addition to this, unusual patterns of cardiomyopathy, i.e., damage to heart tissue, were observed in both RF-exposed male and female Sprague-Dawley rats compared with concurrent control animals, although the findings for female rats were deemed as providing only uncertain or "equivocal" evidence for schwannomas and malignant gliomas, compared to concurrent controls.



"A Closer Look at the NTP Findings

“In all fairness, the primary cancer or overall cancer rates detected in any organ or tissue inside the animal body do not appear to have been purposefully overlooked or unnoticed. Indeed, the results for total primary cancer or tumor occurrences in NTP animal studies can be found in the appendices of its final reports [1]. However, although the data may not have been purposefully disregarded or ignored, the NTP excluded them from its publicized report summaries. An independent analysis of the data showed that rats exposed to GSM and CDMA RF radiation had significantly higher overall or total primary tumor rates than did the concurrent control rats [4].

In particular, the highest overall cancer (or malignant tumors) rates were found in male rats exposed to whole-body SARs of 3 W/kg from 900-MHz cell phone RF radiation (42 and 46% for GSM and CDMA, respectively), and the lowest rate was found in the concurrent control group (27%). Thus, the RF-exposed groups had significantly higher overall or total primary cancer rates than did the concurrent control rats. Moreover, the highest overall tumor rates (either a benign or malignant tumor in any organ or tissue) were observed in male rats exposed to SARs of 3-W/kg (87 and 84% for GSM and CDMA, respectively) cell phone RF radiation. As stated previously, the lowest rate was seen in the concurrent control group (63%). The RF-exposed groups had significantly higher overall tumor rates than did the concurrent control rats. Male rats in the lowest RF-exposed groups (whole-body SARs of 1.5 W/kg) had significantly higher rates of benign primary tumors (76 and 73% for GSM and CDMA, respectively) than did concurrent or sham control groups (54%).”

"IARC Assessment

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) assessed the then available scientific literature and concluded that the epidemiological studies on humans that had reported increased risks for malignant gliomas and acoustic neuromas among heavy or long-term users of cell phones were sufficiently strong to support a classification of 2B, i.e., possibly carcinogenic to humans [9]. With its classification of RF radiation as a 2B carcinogen, the IARC suggested that it also believed the available scientific evidence was incomplete and limited, especially with regard to results from animal experiments.

“The time is right for the IARC to upgrade its previous epidemiology-based classification of RF exposure to higher levels in terms of the carcinogenicity of RF radiation for humans. Recently, two relatively well-conducted RF and microwave exposure studies employing the Sprague–Dawley strain of rats—without, however, using any cancer-promoting agents (or cocarcinogens)—showed consistent results in significantly increased total primary cancer or overall tumor rates in animals exposed to RF radiation.”

It is important to note that the recent NTP and Ramazzini animal RF exposure studies presented similar findings in heart schwannomas and brain gliomas. The increased schwannomas and abnormal heart tissue development/damage to heart tissue are significant findings in RF-exposed animal research studies. In addition to this, the incidence of benign pheochromocytomas of the adrenal medulla was found to be higher in the exposed group than in the sham controls for the 2,450-MHz circular waveguide experiment [6]. Interestingly, in the recent NTP study, there was “some evidence” of carcinogenicity in the adrenal gland. The number of pheochromocytomas was significantly higher (p <0.05) in male rats at 1.5 and 3 W/kg, compared with the concurrent controls. Moreover, the increase in malignant tumor-like hyperplasia in the adrenal gland of female rats was significantly higher at 6 W/kg, relative to the concurrent controls (p <0.05)."


... It is important to note that the recent NTP and Ramazzini animal RF exposure studies presented similar findings in heart schwannomas and brain gliomas. The increased schwannomas and abnormal heart tissue development/damage to heart tissue are significant findings in RF-exposed animal research studies....

A particular perspective to keep in mind is that, with the induction of cancer by a carcinogen, an agent is typically considered carcinogenic if it induces a significant response in a specific tissue.”

[4] J. Moskowitz, “National toxicology program publishes final cell phone radiation study reports,” Electromagn. Radiation Safety, Nov. 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.saferemr.com/2018/11/NTP-final-reports31.html


Evaluation of genotoxicity of cell phone radiation in male and female rats and mice following subchronic exposure (NTP study)

Smith-Roe SL, Wyde ME, Stout MD, Winters JW, Hobbs CA, Shepard KG, Green AS, Kissling GE, Shockley KR, Tice RR, Bucher JR, Witt KL. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of cell phone radiofrequency radiation in male and female rats and mice following subchronic exposure. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2019 Oct 21. doi: 10.1002/em.22343.


The National Toxicology Program tested two common radiofrequency radiation (RFR) modulations emitted by cellular telephones in a 2-year rodent cancer bioassay that included interim assessments of additional animals for genotoxicity endpoints.

Male and female Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats and B6C3F1/N mice were exposed from gestation day 5 or postnatal day 35, respectively, to code division multiple access (CDMA) or global system for mobile (GSM) modulations over 18 h/day, at 10 min intervals, in reverberation chambers at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.5, 3, or 6 W/kg (rats, 900 MHz) or 2.5, 5, or 10 W/kg (mice, 1900 MHz).After 19 (rats) or 14 (mice) weeks of exposure, animals were examined for evidence of RFR-associated genotoxicity using two different measures. Using the alkaline (pH > 13) comet assay, DNA damage was assessed in cells from three brain regions, liver cells, and peripheral blood leukocytes; using the micronucleus assay, chromosomal damage was assessed in immature and mature peripheral blood erythrocytes.

Results of the comet assay showed significant increases in DNA damage in the frontal cortex of male mice (both modulations), leukocytes of female mice (CDMA only), and hippocampus of male rats (CDMA only). Increases in DNA damage judged to be equivocal were observed in several other tissues of rats and mice. No significant increases in micronucleated red blood cells were observed in rats or mice. In conclusion, these results suggest that exposure to RFR is associated with an increase in DNA damage.



The NTP bioassay was designed to evaluate non-thermal effects of cell phone RFR exposure, which meant that body temperature could not change more than 1 °C under our exposure conditions .... Therefore, we consider it unlikely that thermal effects were a confounding factor for our genetic toxicity tests, although more work in general is needed to clarify the thermal effects of RFR on different tissues, and the degree to which increases in body or tissue temperature affect genomic integrity.

... our results and the results of other experiments suggest that non-thermal exposure of cells or whole organisms to RFR may result in measurable genotoxic effects, despite varied and weak responses across studies overall (Brusick et al., 1998; Ruediger, 2009; Verschaeve et al., 2010). Induction of oxygen radicals or interference with DNA repair processes have been proposed as possible mechanisms by which RFR could cause DNA damage (Ruediger 2009; Yakymenko et al. 2015).

... NTP Technical Reports on the results of the 2-year cancer bioassay for exposure to RFR for rats (TR 595) and mice (TR 596) were finalized, peer reviewed, and made publicly available in 2018. The NTP concluded that results demonstrated clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of cell phone RFR (both modulations) based on incidences of malignant schwannomas of the heart in male rats. Malignant gliomas in the brain were also observed in male rats exposed to cell phone RFR and were considered to be related to exposure. Female rats exhibited malignant schwannomas of the heart and malignant gliomas, but incidences of these tumors were considered equivocal. The observation that cell phone RFR affects heart and brain tissue in Sprague Dawley rats after long-term exposure was replicated in a similar study (that used only the GSM modulation) by the Ramazzini Institute (Falcioni et al., 2018). The gliomas and schwannomas observed in rats are similar to the tumor types reported in some epidemiology studies to be associated with cell phone use. The NTP bioassay findings in mice, in which different organs were affected compared to rats, were considered equivocal....

The highest exposure of 6 W/kg in rats and 10 W/kg in mice, for a total of 9 h 10 min a day (achieved by cycling for 10 min on, 10 min off over 18 h 20 min), produced higher exposures than experienced by humans under normal cellular phone use conditions. Thus, whether the findings in the NTP animal studies (e.g. malignant gliomas in the brain and malignant schwannomas in the hearts of male rats; increased levels of DNA damage in hippocampal cells of male rats and the frontal cortex of male mice) indicate a potential for adverse health outcomes in humans remains a question. Because one of the most important questions prompted by our results concerns the mechanism(s) by which RFR might induce biological effects, follow-up studies by the NTP to investigate mechanisms of genetic damage associated with RFR exposure are underway.


Adverse Effects of Wireless Radiation

Kostoff RN. Adverse Effects of Wireless Radiation. 2019. PDF. http://hdl.handle.net/1853/61946.


This monograph identifies adverse effects of wireless radiation as reported in the premier biomedical literature. It shows that most of the reported laboratory experiments are not designed to elicit the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation is embedded. Many do not include pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal, and most do not account for synergistic effects of other toxic stimuli acting in concert with the wireless radiation. It also presents evidence that the nascent 5G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, as commonly believed, but will have systemic adverse effects as well. The monograph includes a substantial bibliography of papers that present these adverse effects, and shows that what has been reported is the tip of the iceberg of the full spectrum of potential adverse effects from wireless radiation.

Open access paper: https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/61946/ADVERSE%20EFFECTS%20OF%20WIRELESS%20RADIATION%20%283%29.pdf

Note: This 649-page monograph is not a peer-reviewed publication.


Further papers: (titles only)

Mobile phone induced cognitive and neurochemical consequences

Cancers of the Brain and CNS: Global Patterns and Trends in Incidence

Radiofrequency field exposure assessment: a pilot study on mobile phone signal strength and transmitted power levels

Methodological limitations in experimental studies on symptoms in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) - review

Measurement and mapping of the electromagnetic radiation in the urban environment

Chromosome damage in human cells induced by UMTS mobile telephony radiation

Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the transcription of repetitive DNA elements in human cells

Investigation of the neuroprotective effects of thymoquinone on rat spinal cord exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field

Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on Gelatinolytic Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 of Mouse Pre-Antral Follicles during In Vitro Culture

Melatonin Modulates NMDA-Receptor 2B/Calpain-1/Caspase-12 Pathways in Rat Brain After Long Time Exposure to GSM Radiation

Uncertainty Analysis of Mobile Phone Use and Its Effect on Cognitive Function: The Application of Monte Carlo Simulation in a Cohort of Australian Primary School Children

Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, mobile phones, and health effects: where are we now?

Miligi L. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, mobile phones, and health effects: where are we now? [Article in Italian]. Epidemiol Prev. 2019 Sep-Dec;43(5-6):374-379. doi: 10.19191/EP19.5-6.P374.107.


This paper aims to present useful elements for framing the issue of exposure to radio frequencies (RFs), in particular those related to telecommunications, and the possible effects on health also in the light of the rapid evolution of technologies (the advent of 5G). New developments in the field oblige us to reflect on the possible implications in terms of public health. Here, we have preferred to take stock and not to demand a systematic review. The development of telecommunications is creating great interest in all sectors for the possibility of new applications, but is also increasing concern for the effects on health not yet fully known, to the point that there is a growing mobilization against the introduction of 5G both at national and at international level. Epidemiological studies and metanalyses on the relationship between cancer and RFs, particularly those on mobile phones, still identify areas of uncertainty that need to be investigated, and studies on non-cancer effects are growing in number, suggesting the possibility of new risks. The relative scenarios that will open with the 5G trial are likely to change the overall exposure level of the population as a result of major changes in the network architecture. Therefore, it is important to adopt a strongly precautionary approach. Given the strong concerns of the population, the competent institutions should implement information and awareness programmes through adequate risk communication.



Why we do not agree with the reassuring conclusions of the report on radiofrequencies and cancer of the Italian National Institute of Health

Comparative Investigations on the Inhibition of Mobile Phone Radiation by Multiple Compartment Cavity Resonance Devices

Confronting Risk of Bias in RF Bioeffects Research. Comments on Two Papers by Vijayalaxmi and Prihoda

Review: The influence of bioactive mobile telephony radiation at the level of a plant community – Possible mechanisms and indicators of the effects

Global gene expression analysis of Escherichia coli K-12 DH5α after exposure to 2.4 GHz wireless fidelity radiation

Ocular Effects of Exposure to 40, 75, and 95 GHz Millimeter Waves

Millimeter‐Wave Heating in In Vitro Studies: Effect of Convection in Continuous and Pulse‐Modulated Regimes

Scoping Review of the Potential Health Effects of Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields

Melatonin Levels and Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in Humans and Rats: New Insights

DNA damage from long-term occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields among power plant workers

Effect of low frequency magnetic field on efficiency of chromosome break repair

Long-Term Monitoring of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Electric Vehicles

Electric Field Exposure Assessments and a Novel Control Method for Buildings Installed Nearby High-Voltage Lines
Increased aggression and reduced aversive learning in honey bees exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

Self-organizing maps classification with application to the low-frequency magnetic field emitted by portable computers

Genotoxic effects of intermediate frequency magnetic fields on blood leukocytes in vitro

Effects of 171 MHz Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Field on Glucocorticoid and Mineral Corticoid Activity of the Adrenal Glands of Rats

Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D., Director
Center for Family and Community Health
School of Public Health
University of California, Berkeley

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Website: https://www.saferemr.com
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SaferEMR
Twitter: @berkeleyprc

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