Raise awareness of environmental health issues in order to better protect our children and future generations.

28 June 2022

How Exposure to Cell Phones and Other Technology Affects Reproductive Health

How exposure to cell phones and other technology affects reproductive health
By Uloma Uche, Ph.D (EWG), Environmental Working Group, 27 June 2022

Wireless devices like cell phones, Wi-Fi and other communication technologies release radiofrequency radiation that can harm the human body.

In both human and animal studies, exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted from wireless devices is absorbed by the body and can harm the reproductive system. (See table below.) The effects show up in studies at a wide range of frequencies – 800 megahertz to 2.45 gigahertz – in both male and female reproductive systems. How much harm the exposure causes depends on the frequency of exposure. The extent of harm is also influenced by the length of exposure, though a recent meta-analysis shows it’s not clear how much of a role that factor plays.1

Many parts of the reproductive system are sensitive to radiofrequency radiation. Research on laboratory animals suggests it can increase the risk of abnormal fetal development, affect hormone levels and decrease ovulation,2 which may increase the risk for female infertility. Animal studies also show radiofrequency radiation can interfere with estrogen production, damage the lining of the uterus and developing egg cells, and cause changes to the heart of the developing fetus.3

Radiofrequency radiation exposure can harm male fertility, too, by decreasing sperm quality (motility, viability, and levels),4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 changing sperm form and structure10, 11, 12 and changing hormone levels in the testis.10, 13, 14, 15, 16

Exactly how radiofrequency radiation affects reproductive health isn’t completely clear. We do know radiofrequency radiation increases the production of reactive oxygen species and leads to changes in intracellular enzymes, changes in gene expression, and nuclear DNA damage. Sperm cells are particularly susceptible to damage from free radicals that can be generated from radiofrequency radiation exposure, since they lack the protective antioxidants typical of other cells in the body.17, 18, 19

Changes to reproductive health because of radiofrequency radiation

Effects on fetal development

Changes in fetal heart function
Exposure to radiofrequency radiation during pregnancy is associated with increased fetal and newborn heart rate and decreased fetal cardiac output.3

Changes in hormone levels
Prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation in laboratory mice was associated with lower levels of testosterone and behavioral anomalies.20

Effects on the female reproductive system

Decreased number of ovarian follicles
The number of follicles in female laboratory rats went down significantly after they were exposed to radiofrequency radiation.21, 22

Structural changes of oocytes
Changes to ovary cells have been associated with radiofrequency radiation exposure in laboratory rats. 23

Degeneration of the ovarian follicles
Prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation in laboratory rats was associated with follicle degeneration and structural changes of ovary cells that produce estrogen. 22

Damage to endometrial tissue
Exposure to radiofrequency radiation from cell phones was associated with the death of the uterine lining in laboratory rats.24

Changes in reproductive hormone levels
Lower levels of the hormones prolactin, estrogen and progesterone were observed in pregnant rats exposed to radiofrequency radiation.25

Effects on the male reproductive system

Decreased sperm quality
Exposure to radiofrequency radiation is associated in human studies with lower sperm concentration, viability, and motility.4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Evidence of the effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on sperm quality has also been observed in animal studies.26, 27

Changes in sperm cell form and structure
The sperm cells of cell phone users were abnormally formed, compared to people who don’t use cell phones.10

In animal studies, sperm “heads” show more abnormalities after radiofrequency radiation, compared to sperm heads in unexposed animals.11, 12

Changes in reproductive hormone levels

Cell phone users have higher concentrations of testosterone and lower concentrations of luteinizing hormone that controls the production of sperm cells, compared to people who don’t use cell phones.10, 13

In animal studies, changes in the concentration of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in serum or in testicular samples have also been linked to exposure to radiofrequency radiation. 14, 15, 16

Continue for references:

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.